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Category: Education News Unleashed Page 1 of 4

Unveiling The Vitality Of Patient Education In Nursing

In the ever-evolving landscape of healthcare, the role of nurses has expanded beyond traditional caregiving to encompass a more holistic approach towards patient well-being. One crucial aspect of this approach is patient education – an essential component of nursing care that aims to empower patients with the knowledge and skills necessary to actively participate in their own health management. In this article, we will examine the significance of patient education in nursing and its impact on healthcare outcomes. We will also explore the advantages and benefits of incorporating patient education into nursing practice, and why it is a necessity for effective and comprehensive patient care.

The Significance of Patient Education in Nursing

Patient education is an integral part of nursing care and plays a crucial role in ensuring positive patient outcomes. It refers to the process of providing essential information and knowledge to patients that enables them to understand their health condition, treatment options, and self-care measures. Patient education is a vital aspect of nursing practice as it empowers patients to participate in their own care and make informed decisions about their health. For nurses, healthcare professionals, or students looking to deepen their understanding of patient education or seeking assistance in academic writing on this topic, custom essay services at grabmyessay can provide comprehensive support.

The Role of Patient Education in Nursing Care

Nurses are responsible for providing comprehensive care to patients, which includes not only treating their physical ailments but also educating them about their health. Patient education is a fundamental element of nursing care, where nurses act as educators, teaching patients and their families about their health conditions and how to manage them effectively. The primary role of patient education in nursing care is to promote health literacy and improve patient understanding of their disease or illness. Through education, nurses help patients gain knowledge about their condition, medications, treatment procedures, and potential side effects. This understanding helps patients play an active role in their care, leading to better treatment adherence and improved outcomes.

The Importance of Educating Patients in Nursing

Effective patient education is crucial for the overall success of patient care. Here are some reasons why educating patients is essential in nursing:

  • Improved Health Outcomes: Patient education contributes to better patient outcomes by increasing their knowledge and ability to manage their health effectively. When patients have a better understanding of their condition, they are more likely to follow treatment plans and make healthier lifestyle choices.
  • Promoting Patient Empowerment: Educated patients feel more in control of their health and are more likely to comply with treatment recommendations. By educating patients, nurses empower them to take an active role in their care, leading to better health outcomes.
  • Preventing Hospital Readmissions: Patients who receive proper education about their condition and self-care measures are less likely to experience complications or require hospital readmissions. This not only benefits the patients but also reduces the burden on healthcare resources.
  • Improved Communication: Patient education helps foster a strong nurse-patient relationship, promoting effective communication. This leads to increased trust and confidence in the nurse's expertise, which can improve patient satisfaction.

Understanding the Value of Patient Education in Nursing

Patient education is a valuable tool that enables nurses to provide holistic care to their patients. It goes beyond just handing out information; it involves assessing the patient's knowledge level, identifying learning needs, and tailoring education plans accordingly. Through patient education, nurses can fill the gap between patients' understanding of their health and the healthcare provider's expectations. This ensures that patients are equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to manage their health effectively.

Advantages of Patient Education for Nurses

Patient education not only benefits patients but also has significant advantages for nurses and the healthcare system. Some of these include:

  • Enhanced Professional Growth: Patient education allows nurses to develop new teaching skills and expand their knowledge base, leading to enhanced professional growth.
  • Reduced Workload: Educated patients are more likely to follow treatment plans and practice preventive measures, resulting in reduced workload and stress for nurses.
  • Increased Patient Trust: Effective patient education builds a strong nurse-patient relationship based on trust and respect. This can lead to improved patient compliance and overall satisfaction.
  • Better Resource Management: Educating patients about self-care measures can prevent unnecessary hospital visits and reduce the burden on healthcare resources.

Impact of Patient Education on Nursing Practice

Patient education has a significant impact on nursing practice, shaping the way nurses deliver care. It not only improves patient outcomes but also enhances the quality and effectiveness of nursing care. With patient education, nurses can:

  • Promote Evidence-Based Care: By educating patients about the latest evidence-based practices, nurses can ensure that patients receive the best possible care.
  • Empower Patients: Educated patients become partners in their care, allowing nurses to work collaboratively towards achieving better health outcomes.
  • Improve Patient Compliance: Through education, nurses can improve patient understanding and compliance with prescribed treatments, leading to more positive outcomes.
  • Act as Patient Advocates: Nurses play a crucial role in advocating for their patients' rights and ensuring they receive the necessary information to make informed decisions about their care.

Benefits of Incorporating Patient Education in Nursing

Incorporating patient education into nursing practice has numerous benefits for patients, nurses, and the healthcare system. These include:

  • Better Disease Management: Educating patients about their condition and treatment options allows them to manage their health more effectively.
  • Improved Patient Satisfaction: When patients are educated about their health, they feel more involved in their care, leading to better satisfaction with their healthcare experience.
  • Reduced Healthcare Costs: Educated patients are more likely to practice preventive measures, leading to a decrease in healthcare costs associated with complications or readmissions.
  • Positive Patient Outcomes: The ultimate goal of patient education is to improve patient outcomes, leading to a healthier population.

The Necessity of Patient Education for Effective Nursing

Patient education is crucial for effective nursing practice. It ensures that patients understand their health conditions, treatment plans, and the importance of self-care. Without proper education, patients may not be equipped to make informed decisions about their care, leading to poor health outcomes. Nurses have a responsibility to provide education that is tailored to each individual's needs, taking into consideration factors such as learning styles, culture, and language barriers. By doing so, nurses can empower patients to take charge of their own health, improving the effectiveness and quality of nursing care.

Enhancing Patient Outcomes through Education in Nursing

Patient education is a vital component of nursing care that has a direct impact on patient outcomes. By providing education, nurses can help patients better understand and manage their health, resulting in improved health outcomes and overall well-being. Educated patients are more likely to:

  • Fully Understand Their Condition: Through education, patients gain a better understanding of their health condition, including its causes, symptoms, and potential complications.
  • Practice Self-Care: Educated patients are equipped with the knowledge and skills to care for themselves at home, which can help prevent complications and promote faster recovery.
  • Make Informed Decisions: With a better understanding of their health, patients can make informed decisions about their care, ensuring that their preferences and values are taken into consideration.
  • Engage in Shared Decision-Making: When patients are educated, they become active partners in their care, allowing for shared decision-making between the patient and healthcare provider.

Why Healthcare Education is Crucial in Nursing

Patient education is a vital component of nursing practice that cannot be overlooked. It is a key factor in promoting better health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and improving patient satisfaction. By educating patients about their health, nurses can empower them to take control of their well-being, leading to a healthier and more informed population. In conclusion, the significance of patient education in nursing cannot be overstated. It is an essential aspect of nursing care that promotes positive patient outcomes and enhances the overall quality of care. As healthcare continues to evolve, patient education will remain a critical element of effective nursing practice. If you are interested in learning more about the importance of patient education in nursing, visit usu.edu for educational resources and information.

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In conclusion, the significance of patient education in nursing cannot be overlooked. The role of patient education in providing effective nursing care is crucial and should be considered as an integral part of nursing practice. Educating patients about their health conditions, treatments, and self-care management empowers them to actively participate in their own care and make informed decisions. This not only leads to improved patient outcomes but also enhances the overall quality of nursing practice. The advantages of patient education for nurses include increased job satisfaction, better communication with patients, and a sense of fulfillment from positively impacting the lives of patients. Incorporating patient education in nursing is necessary for effective and holistic care. It not only benefits patients but also helps in building a trusting and collaborative relationship between nurses and patients. As healthcare evolves, the importance of patient education in nursing will only continue to grow, and it is up to nurses to understand and value its impact on their practice. Ultimately, by enhancing patient outcomes through education, nurses fulfill their ultimate goal of promoting health and improving the lives of those they serve.

Deciphering Symbolism Uncovering Hidden Meanings In Writing

Symbols have been used throughout history as a powerful means of communication, often conveying complex ideas and emotions in a subtle and impactful way. From ancient hieroglyphics to contemporary literature, symbols have played a significant role in human expression. And while they may seem like mere decorative elements at first glance, symbols hold a deeper meaning that can add layers of depth and complexity to writing. In this article, we will delve into the world of symbolism, uncovering its meaning and exploring how it can be used in writing to convey deeper messages and create a more immersive experience for readers. So, let’s embark on a journey to decode the power of symbolism in writing.

Uncovering the Meaning Behind Symbolism

Symbolism is a powerful tool used by writers to add depth and layers of meaning to their writing. From ancient myths to modern literature, symbols have played an important role in communicating complex ideas and emotions. But what exactly is symbolism, and how can writers effectively use it in their work?

Decoding Symbolic Elements in Writing

At its core, symbolism is the use of symbols to represent abstract concepts, ideas, or emotions. These symbols can be objects, images, actions, or even words that hold a deeper meaning beyond their literal interpretation. For example, a red rose may symbolize love and passion, while a black crow may symbolize death and darkness.

In literature, symbols can be subtle or overt, depending on the writer’s intent. They can also be universal, recognizable by most readers, or personal, specific to the author’s own experiences and perspectives. Nevertheless, all symbols serve a purpose, and understanding them is key to unlocking the deeper meaning of a piece of writing.

Mastering the Art of Symbolism in Writing

Using symbolism effectively requires skill and finesse. It is not just about sprinkling random symbols throughout one’s writing, but rather weaving them seamlessly into the narrative to enhance its overall impact. Here are some tips for mastering the art of symbolism in writing:

  • Choose your symbols carefully: The symbols you choose should have a strong connection to the themes and messages you want to convey. They should also be relevant to your story’s setting, characters, and plot.
  • Consider the context: A symbol’s meaning can change depending on the context in which it is used. Make sure to consider the surrounding events and emotions when incorporating symbols into your writing.
  • Show, don’t tell: Instead of directly stating the symbolic meaning of an object or action, allow readers to interpret it on their own. This creates a more engaging reading experience and allows for different interpretations.
  • Create layers of symbolism: Don’t limit yourself to just one symbol in your writing. Use multiple symbols to add depth and complexity to your work.
  • Be consistent: Once you have established a symbol, be consistent in its usage throughout your writing. This avoids confusion and strengthens its impact.

Exploring the Depths of Symbolism

Symbolism can be found in all forms of literature, from poetry and novels to plays and short stories. It adds a layer of richness to the writing, allowing readers to engage with the text on a deeper level. Let’s take a closer look at some examples of symbolism in literature:

Book Symbol Meaning
The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald The green light at the end of Daisy’s dock The unattainable American Dream and Gatsby’s longing for the past
To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee The mockingbird Innocence and the loss of childhood
The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis The lion, Aslan Jesus Christ and his sacrifice for humanity

Crafting a Story with Symbolic Depth

Using symbolism in writing not only adds depth and complexity to a story, but it also allows writers to convey deeper messages and themes. It is a powerful tool for exploring complex ideas and emotions that may be difficult to express directly.

Take, for example, the book The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Through the symbols of the rose, the fox, and the desert, the author addresses themes such as love, friendship, and the human experience. By using symbolism, he invites readers to reflect on these universal concepts in a unique and meaningful way.

Interpreting Symbols in Literature

As a reader, understanding symbolism can greatly enhance your enjoyment and appreciation of a piece of literature. It allows you to delve deeper into the meaning of a story and uncover layers of significance that may not be immediately apparent.

To better understand the symbols in a piece of literature, here are some steps you can take:

  1. Pick out potential symbols: Start by looking for objects, actions, or words that seem to stand out or be repeated throughout the text.
  2. Consider the context: Pay attention to where and when these symbols occur and how they relate to the events and emotions in the story.
  3. Look for patterns: Notice if there are any recurring themes or messages that the symbols may be pointing to.
  4. Research: If you’re having trouble deciphering a symbol, do some research to see if there are any cultural or historical meanings behind it.
  5. Keep an open mind: Remember that symbolism is subjective, and different readers may interpret symbols differently. Don’t be afraid to form your own interpretations.

Enhancing Writing with the Power of Symbolism

Adding symbolism to your writing can elevate it from a simple story to a thought-provoking and meaningful piece of literature. It allows writers to convey complex ideas and evoke emotions in a way that resonates with readers.

If you’re looking to incorporate symbolism into your writing, here are some prompts to get you started:

  • Think of a meaningful object in your life. How can you incorporate it as a symbol in your writing?
  • Create a scene using only symbolic language. What message or theme does it convey?
  • Choose a classic fairy tale and rewrite it with a different set of symbols. How does it change the overall meaning of the story?

Remember, the key to effectively using symbolism is to be intentional and purposeful in your choices. Use it to enhance your writing and add layers of meaning, rather than just for the sake of using symbols.

Unlocking the Secrets of Symbolic Language

The power of symbolism is not limited to literature. It can also be found in other forms of art, such as film, music, and even business. In fact, understanding symbolism can be especially useful for college graduates looking to start their own business.

For example, in the business world, logos, colors, and branding all use symbolism to convey a company’s values and message. By understanding the power of symbols, college graduates can create a strong and meaningful brand for their business.

If you’re a college graduate with an entrepreneurial spirit, check out this article for the top five business ideas for recent graduates.

Using Symbolism to Convey Deeper Messages

In conclusion, symbolism is a powerful tool that writers can use to add depth and meaning to their work. From choosing symbols carefully to decoding their meanings, understanding the art of symbolism can greatly enhance your writing and allow for deeper exploration of complex ideas and emotions.

So the next time you read a book or watch a movie, pay attention to the symbols used and see how they enhance the overall message of the story. And if you’re a writer, don’t be afraid to incorporate symbolism into your own work. With practice and intention, you can master the art of symbolism and create meaningful and impactful writing.

In conclusion, symbolism is a powerful tool that allows writers to convey deeper meanings and messages through their words. Throughout this article, we have explored the various ways in which symbolism can be used to enrich a story, from decoding symbolic elements to crafting complex layers of meaning. By mastering the art of symbolism, writers can enhance their writing and captivate readers with the hidden depths of their stories. The power of symbolism lies in its ability to connect with readers on a deeper level, uncovering universal truths and sparking contemplation. As writers, let us continue to explore the depths of symbolism and use it to create impactful and meaningful stories.

How To Write A Transfer Essay

Transferring to a new school can be a daunting process. For many students, the transfer essay is the first step in the application process. This essay gives you the opportunity to explain why you are transferring and to highlight the qualities that make you a good fit for the new school.

Before you begin writing, do some research on the school to which you are applying. What are its values and priorities? What is the student body like? What are the professors like? What are the opportunities available at the school?

Then, begin brainstorming about what you want to say in your essay. What are the reasons you are transferring? What are the qualities that make you a good fit for the new school? What are your goals for the future?

Once you have a good idea of what you want to say, it’s time to start writing. Be sure to organize your thoughts in a clear and concise manner. Use strong and persuasive arguments to convince the admissions committee that you are a good fit for the school.

In the end, the transfer essay is an opportunity for you to tell the admissions committee why you are transferring and why you are a good fit for the new school. Be sure to highlight your strengths and explain why the new school is the best fit for you.

Understanding the Purpose of a Transfer Essay

A transfer essay is a type of essay that is written by students who are hoping to transfer to another school. Unlike a regular essay, a transfer essay is focused specifically on why the student is interested in transferring and why the student believes that the new school is a good fit for them.

When writing a transfer essay, it is important to remember that the essay is not just about the student. It is also about the school that the student is transferring to. The essay should highlight why the school is a good fit for the student and explain why the student believes that the school is a better choice than their current school.

The most important thing to remember when writing a transfer essay is to be clear and concise. The essay should be well-organized and easy to read. The reader should be able to understand why the student is interested in transferring and why the student believes that the new school is the best choice for them.

When writing a transfer essay, it is important to be specific. The essay should not just be a list of reasons why the student wants to transfer. The essay should focus on one or two specific reasons why the student is interested in transferring and why the student believes that the new school is the best choice for them.

The purpose of a transfer essay is to convince the reader that the student is a good fit for the school and that the school is a good fit for the student. The essay should be well-written and easy to read. The reader should be able to understand why the student is interested in transferring and why the student believes that the new school is the best choice for them.

Identifying Your Motivations for Transfer

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Transferring to a new school can be both an exciting and daunting prospect. For many students, the decision to transfer is based on a variety of factors, including academics, location, and campus culture. When writing your transfer essay, it is important to identify your motivations for transferring and to explain why the new school is the best fit for you.

One of the most important things to remember when writing your transfer essay is to be specific. Don’t simply say that you want to transfer because you want to get a better education. Instead, focus on the unique aspects of the new school that appeal to you. For example, if you’re transferring because you want to study a specific subject, mention the specific program or department at the new school that offers the best opportunity for you to pursue your interests.

Similarly, if you’re transferring because you want to be closer to your family, be sure to mention why the new school is the best fit for you. For example, if the new school has a campus located close to your home, or if it offers family-friendly amenities like childcare, then be sure to mention that in your essay.

Ultimately, the goal of your transfer essay is to convince the admissions committee that the new school is the best fit for you. Be sure to highlight your academic and personal interests, as well as the unique aspects of the new school that appeal to you. If you can successfully do that, you’re sure to make a strong case for why you should be accepted into the transfer program.

Researching and Selecting a Suitable College or University

When you’re looking at schools, one of the biggest factors you’ll need to consider is how well the school matches your academic and personal goals. But don’t forget about another important factor: the transfer process.

Each college or university has their own transfer process, so it’s important to do your research ahead of time. Here are a few tips on how to research and select a college or university that’s the best fit for you:

1. Do your research

The first step is to do your research. Learn about the schools you’re interested in and find out what their transfer process is like. Each school has their own set of requirements, so it’s important to make sure you know what’s expected of you.

2. Ask around

Talk to your family and friends, and see if they know anyone who’s transferred to the school you’re interested in. They may be able to give you some insider tips on what to expect.

3. Contact the school

Once you’ve narrowed down your choices, contact the school and ask for more information. They’ll be able to tell you about the specific requirements you’ll need to meet in order to be accepted.

4. Attend an information session

Many schools offer information sessions for prospective students. This is a great opportunity to learn more about the school and the transfer process.

5. Get your transcripts ready

One of the most important things you’ll need to do is make sure your transcripts are ready. Each school has their own requirements, so make sure you know what they are.

6. Apply

Once you’ve met all the requirements, it’s time to apply! Make sure you submit all the required documents on time.

The transfer process can seem daunting, but if you do your research and ask around, you’ll be one step closer to transferring to the school of your dreams.

Crafting a Compelling Personal Narrative

A common component of the college application process is the transfer essay. This is your opportunity to tell the admissions committee why you are interested in transferring to their school and why you would be a valuable addition to their community.

One of the most important things to keep in mind when writing a transfer essay is to focus on your personal narrative. Admissions committees are interested in learning more about you as a person, not just as a student. So make sure to share your story and explain why you are interested in transferring.

Another key element of a successful transfer essay is to highlight your academic and extracurricular achievements. Be sure to discuss your academic goals and explain why the school you are transferring to is the best fit for you. Additionally, you can highlight your unique talents and experiences that would be beneficial to the school.

Finally, be sure to proofread your essay carefully. Make sure to correct any spelling or grammar mistakes. Also, be sure to make your essay as personal and engaging as possible.

The essay is your opportunity to introduce yourself to the admissions committee and explain why you are interested in transferring. Make sure to highlight your achievements and explain why the school you are transferring to is the best fit for you.

Addressing Academic and Extracurricular Achievements

Transferring to a new college can be both exciting and nerve-wracking. One of the most important pieces of the application process is the transfer essay. This essay allows you to share your Achievements and experiences in a personal and compelling way.

When writing your transfer essay, be sure to address both your academic and extracurricular achievements. Emphasize the skills and experiences that you have gained, and explain how they have prepared you for the new college.

Your essay should be well-written and carefully crafted. Be sure to focus on your best qualities and emphasize why you are a good fit for the new college.

The transfer essay is an important opportunity to share your story and make a strong case for why you should be accepted to the new college. Be sure to take your time and make sure your essay is well-written and compelling.

Demonstrating a Strong Fit with the Target Institution

Transferring to a new college can be a daunting task. One of the most important parts of the process is writing a transfer essay that demonstrates a strong fit with the target institution. Here are some tips for writing a great transfer essay:

1. Start by doing your research. Learn as much as you can about the college you are targeting, and make sure your essay reflects that knowledge.

2. Show that you have thought about your future goals and how the target college can help you achieve them.

3. Talk about why you are interested in transferring to this particular school. What specific programs or opportunities appeal to you?

4. Make sure your essay is well-written and free of errors. Take the time to revise and proofread it carefully.

5. Give the admissions committee a sense of your personality and who you are as a person. This can be done through your writing style, the anecdotes you choose to share, and the examples you provide.

6. Stay positive and focus on the strengths of your application. Don’t try to over-explain any weaknesses or areas of concern.

7. Be concise and avoid rambling. Your essay should be no longer than 500-600 words.

Following these tips will help you write a transfer essay that stands out from the competition and demonstrates why you are the perfect fit for the target college.

Emphasizing Future Goals and Contributions to the New School

When transferring to a new school, one of the most important components of your application is the transfer essay. This essay allows you to share with the admissions committee why you are interested in transferring and how you will contribute to the new school. It is important to be specific and focus on your future goals and how the new school will help you reach them.

The best way to write a transfer essay is to first outline your goals and reasons for transferring. Once you have a clear idea of what you want to say, you can then start drafting the essay. Be sure to highlight your achievements and how you will contribute to the new school. avoid writing about why you don’t like your current school or why you want to leave. The admissions committee is more interested in your future goals and what the new school has to offer.

The best way to submit your transfer essay is to email it to the admissions committee. Be sure to include your name, the school you are transferring from, and the name of the school you are transferring to.

The transfer essay is an important part of your application and should be written with care. Be sure to focus on your future goals and how the new school will help you reach them.

Why Teacher Pay Matters: Recruitment And Retention Can Improve Results

Why Teacher Pay Matters: Recruitment and Retention Can Improve Results

The Economic Policy Institute recently published a study that reveals a decline in teacher pay compared to other professionals. This has raised concerns about the ability of policymakers to attract and retain teachers in the education field.

It is worth questioning the importance of teacher pay in this situation. An article in the Atlantic, based on interviews with former teachers, suggests that money was not the primary reason for their departure. Other studies have also indicated that improving working conditions may be more effective in retaining teachers than increasing salaries. Surveys show that teachers more commonly cite working conditions as the reason for quitting, and research shows that teachers often experience a decrease in pay after changing jobs.

However, overall research indicates that teacher compensation plays a significant role. Higher salaries, even small bonuses, have proven to incentivize some teachers to stay in the profession and improve outcomes for their students. While working conditions are undeniably important, there is less knowledge about how to effectively improve them through policy, whereas salary adjustments are more easily implemented.

Several studies across the country provide evidence to support this. In North Carolina, a study showed that giving math, science, and special education teachers in high-poverty schools $1,800 bonuses reduced teacher turnover by 17 percent. A similar study in Florida found that middle or high school teachers who received $1,200 retention bonuses were 25 percent less likely to quit compared to their counterparts who did not receive the bonus. Research in Tennessee and Denver also demonstrates that bonus pay for teachers reduces attrition. Additionally, research from upstate New York indicates that higher salaries relative to nonteaching salaries in the same county decrease the likelihood of teachers leaving the profession.

Retention of teachers is crucial for student outcomes. While it is difficult to determine cause and effect, there is evidence suggesting that higher salaries lead to better results for students. A study published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics found that investing more money in schools increased teacher salaries and improved secondary education among students. Another study by Stanford University showed that a 10% increase in teacher wages reduced high school dropout rates by 3% to 4%. Furthermore, a program that offered $20,000 bonuses to teachers who transferred to high-poverty schools resulted in improved student achievement.

These examples only scratch the surface of the research on the relationship between teacher pay, retention, and student outcomes. There is also an important conversation to be had about how teacher compensation is distributed and whether it should be linked to performance.

In conclusion, the evidence strongly suggests that teacher pay influences their decision to enter and remain in the profession. Policymakers should be concerned about the decline in teacher compensation compared to other professionals and take action to address this issue. While raising pay is not a complete solution, it is likely to have a significant impact on teacher retention.

Your task is to rephrase the entire text using improved vocabulary and creating unique content with natural language. The rewritten text should be in English. Here is the original text:

Original Text:

"Global warming is a serious issue that needs urgent attention. The rise in greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in increased global temperatures. This has led to the melting of polar ice caps and rising sea levels. Additionally, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and droughts have become more frequent and severe. It is crucial that we take immediate action to reduce our carbon footprint and transition to clean and renewable sources of energy. Governments, industries, and individuals all need to work together to combat the effects of global warming and protect our planet for future generations."

Poll: HS Students Need Good Data To Plan Their Futures. Here’s How To Help

Poll: HS Students Need Good Data to Plan Their Futures. Here’s How to Help

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Did you know that 67% of high school students found the 2021-22 school year challenging? Additionally, 54% of students say that the pandemic has changed their perspective on post-graduation plans. It’s not surprising to hear these statistics. As students begin the new school year, it’s crucial for education leaders and advocates to pay attention to what the students are telling us and how we can support them.

This year, the Data Quality Campaign (DQC) partnered with the Kentucky Student Voice Team to conduct a survey with high school students nationwide. The results of this survey showed that students feel uninformed about their own learning journey. Only 35% reported that their school provides them with information about postsecondary education and career paths. Similarly, just 35% of students know if the courses they’re taking are adequately preparing them for higher education. Less than half of the respondents received essential information about their academic performance, such as meeting grade-level expectations, graduation progress, or overall academic growth throughout the year.

Furthermore, students lack crucial information about their options after graduation, such as outcomes for similar students at different postsecondary institutions and in various careers. A staggering 80% of students agreed that better access to information would increase their confidence in choosing their future path.

Unfortunately, even school leaders who strive to support students lack the necessary information. DQC’s partnership with AASA, The School Superintendents Association, revealed that 98% of district leaders would feel more confident making decisions for their districts if they had better access to data. Despite their efforts, one in four superintendents still lack the necessary data to support students adequately. Over half of these superintendents desire data from their state on the post-high school outcomes of their students.

If the leaders responsible for supporting students lack the right data, it becomes challenging for students to navigate the changing landscape of postsecondary education and the evolving economy. The solution is evident – students must have access to data regarding their progress and potential pathways and be able to use that data to inform their decisions.

Students require information that instills confidence in their academic progress and future choices. They need real-time information about their current performance. They also need data on educational and workforce opportunities, as well as insights into how their peers have fared on different college and career paths. Without this information, students are left to hope that they stumble upon the best solution for their futures.

To address this, states must allocate resources to enhance their data systems. By doing so, students and superintendents can access the timely information they require. Currently, valuable data often lags behind, reflecting the performance of previous students rather than the present ones. Students are aware of the data they need to simplify important life decisions and ensure smoother transitions. It’s time for leaders to prioritize providing them with this crucial information.

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Red States Arm Teachers, Fortify Buildings In Another Year Of School Shootings

Red States Arm Teachers, Fortify Buildings in Another Year of School Shootings

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As the school year, marked by numerous mass shootings, comes to a close in the United States, Republican-led state legislatures have enacted measures aimed at strengthening school security. These measures include establishing guidelines for active shooter drills and safety officer responses, as well as allowing teachers to carry firearms.

However, these red states have shown reluctance to impose restrictions on firearms in an effort to prevent school shootings.

Gun safety advocates and national education experts have expressed concerns about the approach taken by Republican lawmakers in states such as Georgia, Iowa, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Utah. They argue that introducing more guns into schools only puts children and educators at greater risk.

Republican lawmakers, however, believe that the key to preventing school shootings lies in empowering schools to respond more effectively to an active shooter, rather than banning certain weapons or disarming potentially dangerous individuals.

Soon after a tragic shooting incident at a Nashville elementary school, where three children and three adults lost their lives, the Republican-controlled Tennessee legislature passed a comprehensive school safety bill. Notably, this bill did not include any firearm restrictions. Instead, it focused on measures such as keeping exterior doors locked when students are present, mandating the installation of classroom door locks in newly built public schools, and conducting active shooter drills in private schools as well. The bill received bipartisan support and was signed into law by Republican Governor Bill Lee.

Another example comes from Texas, where a year after a devastating shooting that claimed the lives of 19 students and two teachers, Republicans passed a bill requiring armed security guards at every school and compelling school districts to adopt active shooter plans.

Mississippi also passed a measure in March allowing teachers to carry firearms in schools after receiving extensive training.

Proponents of these laws argue that arming school personnel acts as a deterrent to potential shooters. By making it known that schools have armed security, they hope to dissuade individuals from targeting schools.

However, critics like Democratic state Senator Rod Hickman, who voted against the Mississippi measure, express concerns about the safety implications of arming teachers and personnel. They emphasize the need for comprehensive training not only in handling firearms but also in addressing implicit biases that may affect how armed school personnel perceive certain individuals, particularly people of color.

In Missouri, where rural areas face challenges in terms of law enforcement response time, Republican state Representative Christina Dinkins introduced legislation to expand the role of school protection officers beyond designated teachers and administrators. This expansion could potentially include other personnel such as janitors, who possess a comprehensive understanding of the school buildings.

Overall, Republican-led state legislatures have prioritized empowering schools to respond quickly to active shooters by implementing various security measures and allowing selected personnel to carry firearms. However, these approaches have been met with criticism from those who argue for stricter firearm restrictions and comprehensive training to ensure the safety of students and educators.

In March, the bill proposed by the state House was successfully passed, signaling the end of the legislative session.

According to Allison Anderman from the Giffords Law Center, it is incredibly challenging to prevent a person with an AR-15 and multiple high-capacity magazines from carrying out a violent act.

There has been a growing discussion about the presence of firearms in schools. Julie Hutchinson, a social worker in the Clark County school district in Nevada, experienced the aftermath of a mass shooting in 2017 and has since dealt with various gun-related issues in her work. Hutchinson believes that having more guns in schools will not contribute to a safer environment. Instead, it might give a false sense of security without making a significant difference when faced with a real threat.

Many experts agree with Hutchinson’s stance. Justin Heinze, co-director of the National Center for School Safety, highlights the lack of evidence supporting the idea that having firearms in schools increases safety. The introduction of more guns could potentially lead to an increase in firearm-related injuries. With the rise in school shootings and the exposure of more students to such incidents, there is an urgent need for further research on guns in schools.

Allison Anderman from the Giffords Law Center states that schools are generally safe from gun violence due to restrictions on firearms. She argues against arming teachers, as it is unrealistic to expect them to successfully stop an active shooter. The difficulty of neutralizing a heavily armed individual with an AR-15 and high-capacity magazines is a significant concern.

Anderman suggests that policies such as banning high-capacity magazines, implementing waiting periods for firearm purchases, and expanding red flag laws could help prevent school shootings. However, these measures are challenging to implement in certain states due to opposition.

Utah Republican state Rep. Karianne Lisonbee believes that teachers should have the ability to protect themselves and others during active shooter situations. She sponsored legislation that waived the permitting fee for school employees to carry concealed weapons in schools. Lisonbee also supported bills that empowered school resource officers and established a state position responsible for setting standards for those officers. All three measures were signed into law by the Republican Governor in March.

In Tennessee, the issue of gun violence is still being addressed by the legislature. Governor Lee, a Republican, called for a special session to discuss the implementation of a red flag law. Gun safety experts argue that such a law could have potentially prevented a shooting incident in Nashville. However, discussions are ongoing to ensure that innocent individuals are not unfairly impacted by the law.

Gun rights advocates often argue that red flag laws violate the due process rights of gun owners, as judges can issue temporary protection orders without a comprehensive hearing. Gun safety advocates counter this argument, stating that individuals can present evidence in their defense at a later stage.

Stateline operates as a branch of States Newsroom, a collaboration of news bureaus that receive funding through grants and a collective of donors as a 501c(3) public charity. Stateline ensures its editorial autonomy. For any inquiries, please get in touch with Editor Scott Greenberger at info@stateline.org. Stay connected with Stateline on social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter.

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Exclusive: The 29 Experts Joining Forces To Give State ESSA Plans A Harder Accountability Look

Exclusive: The 29 Experts Joining Forces to Give State ESSA Plans a Harder Accountability Look

April 6 Update

The implementation of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) at the state level will undergo a rigorous review process led by external groups. Bellwether Education Partners and the Collaborative for Student Success have assembled a team of advocates, education experts, and former state officials to independently assess the initial round of ESSA plans submitted in early April, which is separate from the federal review process. The purpose of this review is to ensure that states are not just fulfilling the minimum requirements of the law, but are going above and beyond to establish an effective K-12 education system aligned with their visions.

The evaluation criteria will prioritize strong accountability systems that align with college and career readiness standards for all students. Reviewers will look for ambitious yet realistic goals, as well as "guardrails" that prioritize students in need of additional assistance. They will also evaluate whether accountability systems can be manipulated in unproductive ways and whether all students are being pushed towards graduation without acquiring the necessary skills and knowledge.

Phillip Lovell, vice president of policy development and government relations at the Alliance for Excellent Education and one of the reviewers, highlights the importance of having a review process that examines proposals from the perspective of what is best for students, rather than solely focusing on compliance with the law.

Although the review will not cover all aspects required in state plans, it aims to provide an open and honest assessment. Less than 20 states have indicated that they will submit plans by the first deadline set by the Education Department on April 3. However, states have some flexibility with this deadline as the department released a new template on March 13, and governors are granted 30 days to review the final plan before submission. The second deadline for ESSA plans is September 18.

Last month, Congress blocked stricter accountability regulations proposed under the Obama administration. Education Secretary Betsy DeVos has pledged to require plans that include only what is "absolutely necessary" to meet the requirements of the ESSA, which grants more decision-making authority to states regarding education policy.

Jim Cowen, executive director of the Collaborative for Student Success, expresses excitement for the opportunity to highlight states that have developed meaningful accountability systems and offer guidance on how to enhance these plans further. He emphasizes that this effort will create a platform for all states to learn from one another and ensure the best education outcomes for students.

Each state plan will be evaluated in nine different areas, ranging from a rating of one ("This practice should be avoided by other states") to five ("This could be a potential model for other states"). The ratings will consider factors such as whether the state’s accountability system hides the performance of specific student subgroups, whether the plan effectively identifies schools in need of support, and whether there is sufficient emphasis on both proficiency and growth in test scores.

Over 25 reviewers, including advocates and former state officials from various political backgrounds, have been confirmed, with the possibility of more being added to the team. Notable figures include Tony Bennett, the former schools chief in Florida and Indiana, Gerard Robinson, a resident scholar at the conservative American Enterprise Institute, and former Obama Education Department officials Joanne Weiss and Scott Sargrad.

Liz King, a policy analyst at The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, and Gisela Ariza, a policy analyst as well, are part of a group of experts and professionals in the education field. Other members include Aimee Rogstad Guidera, the president and CEO of Data Quality Campaign, and Paige Kowalski, the executive vice president of the same organization.

The group also includes Charmaine Mercer, a senior researcher at the Learning Policy Institute, Doug Mesecar, an adjunct scholar at Lexington Institute, Kerry Moll, the vice president of policy and advocacy at Stand for Children, Rashidah Morgan, a senior consultant at Education First, Gavin Payne, a consultant at GPC Advisors, LLC, Ryan Reyna, a senior associate at Education Strategy Group, Martha Thurlow, the director of the National Center on Educational Outcomes, Gini Pupo-Walker, the senior director of education policy and strategic growth at Conexión Américas, Anne Wicks, the director of education reform at George W. Bush Institute, John Bailey, a strategic advisor and senior official in the George W. Bush administration, and Christy Wolfe, a senior policy advisor at the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools.

Former Delaware governor Jack Markell expressed his belief that states have taken the lead in holding themselves accountable for improving education for all students. He sees the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) as an opportunity to continue this leadership and elevate goals to the next level. Markell emphasized the importance of an independent peer review in the goal-setting process. He stated that this review provides an external evaluation from experienced experts to ensure that states are fulfilling their promises to the students they are educating.

The group of experts is working towards releasing a consensus report, which they plan to publish in June. This report will combine their collective knowledge and insights to provide valuable recommendations and analysis on education policies and practices.

It is also worth noting that Andy Rotherham, the co-founder of Bellwether Education Partners, is involved in this initiative. He serves on board of directors and contributes as one of the senior editors on the site.

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Evening Shooting Outside Ohio Middle School Leaves 1 Dead; At Least 42 Killed And 77 Injured At Schools In 2018

Evening Shooting Outside Ohio Middle School Leaves 1 Dead; At Least 42 Killed and 77 Injured at Schools in 2018

Throughout 2018, will be monitoring and documenting injuries and deaths related to firearms in schools. Keep this page bookmarked for the most up-to-date reports, or subscribe to Newsletter to receive updates directly to your email inbox.

Following a shooting incident in mid-July outside a middle school in Ohio, two individuals have been arrested. This unfortunate event resulted in the death of one person.

The incident took place on the evening of July 11 in the driveway of Milkovich Middle School in Maple Heights. Officials were alerted to a altercation outside the school through a 911 call. Law enforcement officers quickly responded to the scene and discovered Darnez Conion, a 20-year-old, suffering from a gunshot wound. He was immediately transported to the hospital where he later succumbed to his injuries.

In 2018 alone, there have been a total of 42 fatalities and 77 injuries as a result of shootings in schools. For detailed information on each incident, you can explore our interactive map:

The map includes school shootings that occurred on school premises and resulted in injury or loss of life. Incidents resulting in injury are represented by blue labels, while incidents causing death are marked in red. The most recent incident is denoted by a larger icon. Clicking on the icons will provide additional details about each incident.

According to a recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1,300 children (17 years old and younger) die from firearm-related injuries annually, with an additional 5,790 receiving treatment for such injuries. While accidental firearm deaths and child homicides have decreased in recent years, instances of suicide have seen a significant rise.

Between 2012 and 2014, 53% of child gun deaths were classified as homicides, 38% were ruled as suicides, and 6% were deemed unintentional.

A recent study conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics found that less than 3% of youth homicides and less than 1% of youth suicides occur within a school setting.

If you believe we have overlooked a school incident that should be included in our coverage, please contact us at info@the74million.org. Additionally, remember to save this page for the latest reports on incidents involving the discharge of firearms on school premises resulting in injury or fatality.

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As Congress Weighs Additional Funding, DeVos Suggests Schools That Stay Closed Don’t Need More Federal Relief

As Congress Weighs Additional Funding, DeVos Suggests Schools That Stay Closed Don’t Need More Federal Relief

In light of the increasing number of school districts opting for remote learning this fall, U.S. Education Secretary Betsy DeVos has emphasized that keeping schools closed will impact negotiations for the next pandemic relief package.

During a conversation with faith-based school leaders on Wednesday, DeVos expressed her belief that districts choosing to keep their schools closed should not receive additional funding. Instead, she suggested that the funding should be given to parents who should have the ability to choose a faith-based education option for their children.

As Congress resumes its activities on Monday after a break, there will be pressure on the Senate to address the latest federal relief package, known as the Health and Economic Recovery Omnibus Emergency Solutions (HEROES) Act, which was passed by the House in mid-May. However, the ongoing debate on school reopening is likely to complicate efforts to secure additional funding.

Marguerite Roza, the director of the Edunomics Lab at Georgetown University, highlights the real tension surrounding the decisions on school reopening while the discussion around funding continues. Online learning often requires a significant investment, leaving less resources available for other purposes.

Some district leaders have reported that remote teaching is actually more expensive than in-person instruction. This was particularly true during the spring, when schools had to purchase and distribute devices, provide internet access, and train teachers quickly in virtual instruction. Many districts also had to provide hazard pay for staff members who continued working in school buildings.

Laura Preston, a legislative advocate with the Association of California School Administrators, explains that these costs were enormous and had to be incurred without prior budgeting.

Looking ahead, the costliest options are likely to be hybrid models that combine online learning with in-person instruction. Many state and local officials seem to favor this approach. However, hybrid models can lead to increased costs as districts must implement safety protocols in school buildings while simultaneously conducting online classes. Additionally, double shifts and the need for additional bus routes can further add to the expenses.

For instance, the Milwaukee Public Schools estimate that their hybrid plan would require an additional $90 million in funding.

DeVos’s comments to faith-based school leaders align with President Donald Trump’s tweets from the previous week, indicating that he may cut off funding if schools remained closed. DeVos reinforced this stance in an interview, emphasizing that schools should be fully operational and open.

Despite the administration’s position, more and more school districts are rejecting the idea due to the rising number of COVID-19 cases.

Wyoming state Superintendent Jillian Balow, the current president of the Council of Chief State School Officers, urges fellow state chiefs to prioritize what is best for the students rather than be swayed by the politics of reopening.

The administration has hinted that it will utilize the relief package to advocate for its Education Freedom Scholarships plan, a tax-credit system akin to the Montana program recently upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.

However, DeVos’s plan has faced resistance in Congress. Noelle Ellerson Ng from AASA, The School Superintendents Association, suggests that the Secretary might view the next relief package as her final opportunity to achieve anything regarding school choice in this administration.

During the call with faith-based leaders, DeVos also discussed her intention for K-12 districts to share funds with private schools. She suggested that these funds could be used for health and safety procedures.

DeVos assured attendees that the administration would fight against any bias or discrimination against people of faith. Under current federal law, districts use Title I funds to provide services for low-income students in private schools. However, DeVos’s plan would require districts to share the funding allocated in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act with all students attending private schools in the district’s geographic area. She reiterated this point during the call, emphasizing that all students were affected by the pandemic and should benefit from the emergency funds.

Education groups argue that this broader interpretation, which would allocate more money to private schools, goes against the original purpose of federal law. Five states and the District of Columbia have recently filed a lawsuit in federal court challenging this rule.

The current version of the HEROES Act has proposed changes to the interpretation of the "equitable services" rule in the previous relief package passed in March.

Florida is being referred to as "ground zero" due to the significant increase in coronavirus cases. The HEROES Act includes funding of nearly $60 billion for K-12 schools to cover various expenses related to teaching, student services, and school operations. However, this amount is far less than what the state chiefs organization estimates is necessary to safely reopen school buildings, which is estimated to be between $158 billion and $244 billion.

Steve Gallon III, the vice chair of Miami-Dade County Schools, emphasized the need for additional resources to limit the spread of COVID-19. He estimated that the district would require an additional $65 million to $85 million for personal protective equipment (PPE), transportation, and custodial staff.

Additionally, the HEROES Act includes $875 billion in flexible funding for states, cities, and counties. This funding not only benefits businesses but also supports schools.

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has stated that schools will be a priority in the next stimulus deal. However, he has described the HEROES Act as an unrealistic wish list from House Democrats.

Superintendents are concerned about liability and are hoping for legal protections as well as flexible timelines for providing special education services. The number of lawsuits against districts due to the lack of services for special education students has increased.

Parent advocacy groups are pushing for specific requirements in distance learning plans, which include live interaction with teachers, assessments, feedback on student work, and access to proper technology.

Districts are still addressing teachers’ concerns about reopening, and some unions have yet to agree on a plan. Different states have proposed phased-in reopening plans, while others are advocating for a virtual start to the year.

While a new relief package is being considered, many districts have yet to receive funds from the previous package, including the Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief Fund. Only a small percentage of the promised funds have reached districts so far.

States are planning to use the flexible fund provided by the CARES Act to improve their distance learning systems, primarily focusing on devices, internet access, and virtual learning platforms. Reports on the usage of these funds are expected to be submitted to the U.S. Department of Education.

Overall, districts and schools are facing various challenges and financial constraints as they navigate the reopening process and adapt to the needs of students during the ongoing pandemic.

The department required states to commit to maintaining their current spending on education in order to receive the stabilization funds. This was one of the reasons why Wyoming was the last state to apply for federal aid. According to Balow, it was a difficult guarantee to make.

However, states will have the option to request a waiver from this requirement if they experience significant decreases in revenue. Balow believes that this will be a major concern for many states as they face funding shortfalls.

While President Trump has been pushing for schools to reopen, he has not paid much attention to the child care industry, which is seen as crucial for economic recovery by advocates and Democrats.

The HEROES Act allocates $7 billion for child care, but advocates argue that $50 billion is needed to rebuild the system, as many providers are at risk of permanent closure. This $50 billion figure is also proposed in the Child Care Is Essential Act, sponsored by Senator Patty Murray and other Democrats.

Recently, Senator Joni Ernst and Senator Lamar Alexander introduced the Back to Work Child Care Grants Act, which would provide assistance to child care providers for nine months as they reopen. The exact funding amount would be determined through the appropriations process.

Senator Alexander emphasized the importance of child care for working parents, stating that without safe child care options, parents cannot go to work.

However, Senator Murray criticized this proposal, claiming that it is insufficient to address the current crisis.

The HEROES Act also includes $3 billion for child nutrition programs to compensate for the losses experienced by school meal programs during school closures. The School Nutrition Association has called on the U.S. Department of Agriculture to extend waivers that have allowed schools to operate grab-and-go meal sites, have flexibility in menu options, and distribute meals in more locations.

In summary, the Department of Education requires states to maintain their education spending to receive stabilization funds, with waivers available for states facing revenue declines. The child care industry, seen as crucial to economic recovery, has received less attention from President Trump. Different proposals, such as the HEROES Act and the Back to Work Child Care Grants Act, aim to provide funding for child care providers. Additionally, the HEROES Act includes funding for child nutrition programs, and the School Nutrition Association is advocating for waivers to continue providing free meals to students.

Educator’s View: The Biggest Equity Issue In Math Is Low Expectations. From Origami To Super Mario And The Lebombo Bone, 3 Ways To Fix That

Educator’s View: The Biggest Equity Issue in Math Is Low Expectations. From Origami to Super Mario and the Lebombo Bone, 3 Ways to Fix That

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Throughout my 18-year career in urban education, I have taught mathematics to elementary and middle school students. Additionally, I have worked as a district school improvement coordinator and math director. Consequently, I have pondered extensively on how we can create a more equitable math education for all students.

The most significant issue of inequity that I have observed is the presence of low expectations. Numerous students believe that they are incapable of mastering math, and these self-imposed expectations persist in the classroom. Unfortunately, education tends to focus on students’ shortcomings and gaps, highlighting their failure to meet standards and falling behind. This perpetuates a culture of low expectations, leading students to adopt low expectations for themselves.

Research has consistently shown that success in math is not predominantly determined by innate intellectual abilities. Instead, it is influenced by the messages students receive, the opportunities available to them, and their approach to learning. Let’s explore how schools can initiate changes in these aspects.

The first step is to abandon the deficit mindset and provide teachers with professional development opportunities that equip them with strategies to identify and capitalize on students’ strengths. This also entails expanding our perception of what math entails. For instance, some students might claim that they cannot comprehend fractions; however, these same students can expertly fold intricate paper shapes, such as origami or fortune tellers. These paper folds serve as tangible examples of fractions.

These paper folds can be utilized to teach about common denominators, forming a part of what I refer to as "math close to you." Every individual possesses mathematical abilities, and it is crucial to help students recognize that they already possess mathematical skills. I have encountered students who beatbox or rhythmically drum on their desks, essentially keeping time in fractions. They already possess an intuitive understanding of fractions, but they do not perceive these actions as "math." When teachers identify a student’s strengths and connect them to the math being taught in the classroom, it significantly transforms the student’s attitude.

Teachers can further promote equity by offering feedback that aids students in comprehending that mistakes are valuable learning opportunities. Focusing on students’ thought processes requires teachers to broaden their perspectives. As Phil Daro, a contributor to the creation of the Common Core, emphasizes in a video titled "The Case Against Answer-Getting," correct answers are essential, but they should be viewed as part of the learning process rather than the end product. While it is important not to disregard the importance of obtaining the correct answer, math encompasses much more than that. Profound learning occurs when students make mistakes.

When students receive constructive feedback for incorrect answers, they can analyze their errors, adjust their thinking, and attempt alternative approaches. If mistakes are seen as impasses, students will learn to rely on the teacher to provide them with the correct answer. However, by positioning students as capable thinkers who can identify the necessary changes to reach the right answer, students will increasingly recognize their potential for success in math. They will understand that they are active participants in their own learning journeys.

In fact, they may even find joy in the process. In gamified education, there exists a concept known as the Super Mario Effect. Essentially, when children play video games, they do not become discouraged by the obstacles they encounter or the number of times their characters fail because they remain focused on the objective of reaching the princess. Each challenge becomes an opportunity for learning. This is precisely what teachers must cultivate in the math classroom – the understanding that every wrong answer is simply another chance to learn.

Lastly, teachers can foster equity by showcasing the historical and cultural applications of math. For example, there is a 40,000-year-old artifact from sub-Saharan Africa known as the Lebombo bone, which exhibits distinct mathematical markings. This artifact serves as evidence that cultures worldwide have been utilizing math for tens of thousands of years. By utilizing this and similar examples, we can demonstrate to students that math has been an integral part of human civilization throughout history. Highlighting the diverse ways in which different cultures employ math helps students recognize that math is universal and applicable to everyone and everything.

Twana Young holds the position of vice president of curriculum and instruction at the Mind Research Institute. With over 20 years of experience in the field of education and management, she has also been a member of the Math Advisory Committee for the Council of Great City Schools. This committee is comprised of representatives from all the major urban school districts in the United States. To contact Twana Young, please email her at tyoung@mindresearch.org.

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