I'm a greater believer in luck, and I find the harder I work the more I have of it

Category: Essays Templates

Perception Blanketed By Passion In The Scarlet Letter

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter portrays Hester, Dimmesdale and their self-delusion. Hester is puzzled by her Scarlet Letter interpretation. Dimmesdale gets caught up in Hester’s inspirational words about a better way to live.

Hester is disappointed by the thought that her punishment and all the associated burdens will be removed with the Scarlet Letter. She feels that she has done enough penance. Hester questions Dimmesdale as to why they should “linger over [the] sin now” when “[she] would undo the entire thing.” Dimmesdale says that they shouldn’t dwell upon the sin and that it can be erased by literally ripping the Letter. Hester believes she can also “undo it all” if the Letter is taken off her chest. Here is an example of her delusional thinking. Hester says that after removing the letter, Hester felt “exquisite relief,” as though she no longer had to carry the burden. This is Hester’s freedom. Hester ignores, however, the fact that Scarlet Letter also burdens his conscience. The Scarlet Letter, although materially a punishment article, cannot be removed from the body. However, the “other” form penance is intangible and cannot be thrown out of her mind. Hester believes that by taking the Scarlet Letter off, she is free from any obligation to pay her punishment. And this self-delusion misleads her to not think realistically, and not fully understand that she cannot get rid of her sin or the punishment from her conscience.Dimmesdale is revealed to be caught up in Hester’s vision, reflected in his reaction to the release and purge of his sin and penance. Hester helped him transform from gloom into a state of happiness. Dimmesdale is relieved to hear that Hester has pardoned him. He feels an exhilarating glow and strange pleasure. It’s as if he has finally been freed from the torment caused by sin. Dimmesdale had never experienced such joy beforehand. He was only familiar with torment, anguish and pain. Dimmesdale is now enveloped in a “free environment”. He believes he can live without his penance. His childlike desire to get rid of his penance is evident in his reactions. Dimmesdale describes current circumstances by saying that God’s mercy is what God has done for him. Hester’s encouraging words are what made his joy evident. Dimmesdale claims that he was once “sick, sorrow-stained,and blackened” before he changed. The contrast between “start” and “finish” of his transformation is stark. Hester’s words are what Dimmesdale follows with joy. He credits Hester directly for his behavior change and calls her “[his] greater angel.” “Angel” can be used to denote a hero, savior, or rescuer. Dimmesdale wouldn’t have believed it if she hadn’t encouraged him. While he may be free and innocent in the forest, his knowledge of his sins would have a devastating effect on his already troubled soul. He is now more optimistic and focuses on Hester’s vision of the better life.

In the two last paragraphs of the selected passage, Hester’s belief in God and Nature for their recovery from their fall from grace is revealed. The couple are further affected by the imagery of the forests and changing environment. Hester claims that she feels “exquisite freedom” after removing her Letter. She has never known weight loss until this point and is convinced that her “freedom” from the letter will solve all of her problems. Hawthorne makes Hester shine in the dark forest by displaying her hidden beauty. Hawthorne refers to the “a sudden smile in heaven” that describes the approaching rays. This indicates that Nature understood Hester’s dilemma and forgave them. It is encouraging for them to know that Heaven is the cause of this phenomenon. This shows how Nature and/or Goad take care of them. Hawthorne says that the “Nature is not subjugated” by human law. He means that rules and punishments are ineffective in Mother Nature’s forest. Hester, Dimmesdale think that Nature is pleading for their good and pardoning them. This is because Hester and Dimmesdale have seen a better world and received Nature’s advice. They now see a blockade in the world and are driven to achieve their goals and aspirations.

Huck’s Journey: Learning From His Own Experience

Mark Twain’s novel about a young boy’s struggle with maturation and his struggles, as well as the challenges and questions it brings to Huck’s life, examines society and the influence of adults. Since publication of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, many have criticized the book. They often focus on Jim’s use of nigger. However, I see another reason why the novel should be rejected by school boards or parents groups. It is a violation of ideals that many parents hope to instill into their children. After reading this book, I was astonished to see Huck living without parental control. This is the first time I have read it since high school. It also marks the end of my relationship with my parents. Huck does not have to conform with society’s expectations. He is allowed to think for himself and to determine what is good or bad.

Huck, who is skeptical of society’s values, runs away from his freedom to escape the threat of his friends, until he is expelled from the gang. Huck has the choice of independence or loneliness and decides to go back. Huck is taken from his friends by his father when he returns to take custody. Huck is kept alone in his cabin and allowed to think through his options. He will remain in the cabin and be completely powerless against his father’s will. He will be returned to his drunken father if he flees the cabin and returns to the city. He knows that escape is the only way to get out. Huck makes a murder attempt to escape society’s pressures and allows for unhindered personal growth. Huck now has the freedom to live life as he wants. Jim is his companion, which removes the loneliness that kept him from fleeing society. Unfortunately, Huck is already having problems with society’s influence. Huck is finally freed from society’s rules. He is now able to come to terms with his misperceptions about slaves.

Twain immediately shows how the two of them have a positive effect on each other in the few chapters they spend together. Jim’s contribution to Huck’s success is that of an adult presence. This is despite Jim’s inferiority. Jim also offers Huck protection from both emotional as well as physical pains. Twain quickly demonstrates both types of protection in Chapter 9. Jim and Huck have only a few days to get ready for the storm, which Jim predicts. Huck could have been swept away by the torrential storm if it wasn’t for Jim’s ability to spot the changes in animal behavior. Huck learns that Jim delayed learning about his father’s death from Huck until the moment is right. Although Huck’s father did beat him and hindered his growth as a normal citizen of society, it is still true that children, especially those of impressionable age are often severely affected when their parents die. Huck would prefer to not be exposed to the disfigured corpse, even if he died without any consequences.

Huck’s understanding of society’s problems is enhanced by his interaction with the Grangerfords, Shepherdsons, and Grangerfords. This experience opens Huck up to the difficulties of blindly adhering to tradition. Huck has been persuaded by many to choose this path over letting him make his own logical decisions. His father made it clear to us that he was not literate and reprimanded Huck for learning to read and how to write. This example with feuding family members is an excellent example of why people should not follow sheep’s footsteps blindly. We meet Buck, an example of an adult mind that has been destroyed by adolescence. Buck is exactly the same age and has lost his ability to judge because of the Shepherdsons’ ongoing feud. Huck asks him if he can admit that the feud started from a lawsuit between long-deceased people. Both families have shown their children hatred of the other clan through generations. All of them are killed because they refuse to think rationally. Huck knows his fortune. Huck covers the face, crying as he sees that he did not get the chance for him to correct his mistakes.

Huck’s next encounters to society and its ideals further reinforce his cynical insights. Jim and Huck are able to meet the Duke and King. Huck soon discovers that these men con people and their companions. They are the lowest morals of society, something Huck actually attributes to leaders. Jim doesn’t know about this and refuses to share it with him, even though Huck knows they lie about what their positions are. We are shown glimpses of the dangers of morality and greed during the tenure of the men on the raft. The men con entire towns for small change and charge a small fee to watch them perform poorly from Shakespeare’s plays. The men see how easy it is and want to get more. However, they soon discover how easy it really is.

The royal duo attempt to take all inheritance money from three women who are in mourning. Then they try to sell Jim back to slavery. Twain sets the stage for their latest ventures to fail, despite them having succeeded with previous ones. Huck steals money from the inheritance. The true family finds it in a coffin. And the conmen barely escape punishment. They don’t know and they end up being punished when Huck makes Jim $40 more important than him. This is Twain’s most powerful attack against slavery. The men receive punishment, even though the society at the time taught them that slaves can be purchased and sold.

Huck realizes that Jim has been captured and must be punished. The only one left to think, freed from society’s distractions and misdirection, Huck is able to reflect upon the lessons he learned in his life outside of civilization. He recalls the people he’s met in his lifetime. Retrospectively, he realizes that Jim is his closest friend and the most kind person he has ever met. This man is one society would not consider a man. He is well aware of his past teachings about slaves as property. Freeing Jim would be theft, but he can see the greater evil only through his own experience. In the novel’s climax, he decides to release Jim from slavery.

Tom’s visit to Huck creates complications in his quest. Tom, Huck’s friend and confidant, is allowed by Huck to reanimate many of his ideas. Tom views Jim, contrary to Huck, as a sub-human. Huck, and his family, are not aware that Jim is now free. Tom rather assists Huck in “freeing” him to have an adventure. Huck might not have received the help he needed if Jim wasn’t a freeman. Huck is sure to agree with Tom, since he does not understand why a boy from society would steal a slave. Twain demonstrates that Tom is not a blinded by tradition and makes Jim go free when he helps.

The book’s last chapter is a good summary. It clarifies many of Twains previous lessons. Huck is freed from the fear of father because Jim sees that he must learn the truth. Jim is now free, proving that Miss Watson knew the wrong way before her death. Huck sees the changes in his life and decides to retire from the society he was raised into. Fortunately, due to the lack of legal control and the money, Huck has the option to retire. He plans “light out for Territory ahead of all the rest” (296), to save it from being destroyed by the wrong beliefs and traditions.

The Dark Themes Of American Slavery In The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn, A Novel By Mark Twain

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain tries to take the reader into American slavery. But, by the end of his novel, the reader finds himself following the childish adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. The novel is about a boy growing up in southern societies, just before the American Civil War. Huckleberry, a freed slave, and Jim, a young boy, form a close friendship as they travel together down the Mississippi River. Jim is taken prisoner by Huck at the end of this book. Twain’s protagonist Tom Sawyer is well aware of Jim’s fate. Huck convinces Tom to use his elaborate schemes to “free Jim” for the adventure Tom longs for. The story was distracting from the social issues Twain had to address at the beginning of his novel. Many believe Twain’s seamless denunciation of racism is a result of Huck’s moral revelations. But, it becomes evident that racism is no longer an issue in the novel. The plot diverts to Tom Sawyer’s imagined adventures and Huck’s growth as a character. Jane Smiley, literary critic, states that “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is lacking in greatness.” There is much more to American history from the canonization of it than canonization (Smiley). The truth is that the novel is more glorified than the ideas for which it is being praised. Twain’s social commentary on 19th century Southern society in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been praised by many. However, Twain failed to understand the American incomprehension of race.

Huck, at the beginning, idolizes Tom Sawyer. He is open to doing whatever Tom asks. Huck, even though he changes a lot in character, Huck instantly reverts to his sidekick from the beginning. Jim, who has already started to appear like Huck’s sidekick becomes even more marginalized in the novel. This is despite the fact that Jim’s character is vital to Twain trying to convey. Tom’s influence is what the novel’s supporters claim caused Huck to lose his character and halt meaningful plot progress. Huck is forced to make a choice between saving Jim and letting his owner know. Huck tears up the note that he wanted to send to Jim and says “Allright, then, i’ll go to Hell” (Twain 228). Defenders of the novel will argue that this is a significant character development for a boy who, having been taught to believe that helping escaped slaves would bring him to eternal damnation in hell, had never had to look after anyone else. Twain could have closed the book with this conclusion. In the next chapters, Twain rewrites everything he has built. Huck made that important decision but it doesn’t mean anything if Huck does not take action. Tom applies pressure to Huck and he caves. Huck did not resolve to play any more jokes on Jim. Huck continues to follow Tom’s lead, creating unnecessary obstacles and making Jim suffer with snakes, spiders and rats. Huck can’t speak for Jim in front of his friend if he isn’t able to. Huck knows Tom is being a nuisance but he is passive. Huck loses everything that made him such a great protagonist. Huck has become a less complex character than the one the reader had grown to love. The problem lies in society’s perceptions and praises it gets for its condemnation of racism. Huck’s failure to keep his promises to Jim and giving in to society’s expectations is supposed to show the absurdities of racism. This is a poor reflection of America’s social situation. Jane Smiley says that society believes that Huck should feel positive about Jim and love him. Also, that he thinks of Jim as a man. (Smiley). They think they can congratulate themselves for having a protagonist who can show basic human decency. The opposition loves to glorify this novel and thinks they can take credit for a protagonist who can demonstrate basic human decency. Huck’s development is largely due to his refusal to accept what is told to him and making decisions about right and wrong. Huck and Jim form a friendship that helps him to understand racism and other social issues. Huck sees Jim’s humanity even though he is beginning to understand it. However, Twain does not do enough to address these issues. Twain also doesn’t deserve praise for his denunciation of racism. Huck was able to treat Jim with more compassion and respect, but Huck is going in the wrong way. Huck doesn’t learn how to relate the concept to African Americans or slaves. Huck is astonished when Jim speaks about his family. It doesn’t seem natural to me, but it is what I believe” (Twain 177) Huck seems to think Jim is an exception. Jim is closer to “white folks” then people of color. Jim’s humanity is evident. Huck learns to be kind to Jim, not as an African American. Huck doesn’t learn respect for people of color even if he did. Huck believes that helping Jim is morally wrong and that Huck is guilty of it. Huck says that Tom offered to save Jim. It was unbelievable to me. Tom Sawyer is a ***** cheater!” (Twain 220). Huck still has much work to do before becoming one of the most important literary figuresheads for racial egalitarianism. Twain, however, doesn’t encourage any further learning. Twain cuts Huck’s character development like this and doesn’t give Huck any meaningful conclusion. Huck doesn’t triumph in racism. The novel is still highly praised by many. The fact that Huck cannot completely change his childhood is more relevant and indicative of the time period. Twain fails to mention that Huck was not absolved of his moral obligations. Smiley states that Huck deserves credit for recognizing that all Americans, blacks and whites, are human. Huck doesn’t even acknowledge this fact by the end. This novel is a reminder that the reader must not only respect it but also ignore Twain’s “revelations,” which perpetuates a negative perception of racism.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn’s readers and critics both love Mark Twain’s efforts to understand the deep-rooted problems in southern society. Twain’s novel is flawed in many ways. Through Huck’s growth and revelations, Twain attempts to instill realizations about racism on the reader. Twain doesn’t expect readers to learn these moral lessons if Huck is shown to have regressed in his character and is unable use what he learned. Huck doesn’t value Tom’s thoughts more than Jim is. Huck can respect Jim only if he sees Jim more like an African American than a white man. Huck also needs to show some kindness towards Jim and show some humanity to society’s praises for Huck’s progress in social understanding. Huck’s basic human decency towards Jim shouldn’t be considered the highest point of the country’s response to American slavery. Twain’s flaws in the novel are misrepresented to be revelations and solutions to society’s problems. Maybe this shows that even though equality has improved, Americans still adhere to the same flawed novel.

“Sir Gawain And The Green Knight”: Controversial Concept Of Courtesy

Sir Gawain, the Green Knight and his medieval poem depict two different models of medievalcourtesy: courtesy to men and women. Because the two types are different, they require different and sometimes contradictory acts. Compatibility of Sir Gawain’s and Green Knight’s models of politeness hinders the restoration to social order. Dr. E.L. says that men should be treated with courtesy. Skip Knox stated, “Originally, the term courtesy meant that one knight gave to another.” A mutual contract is made between men for their loyalty. It includes trust, respect, and sometimes, allegiance. Gawain presents this type to Arthur, his monarch, Bercilak, as well to the Green Knight. (Sir Gawain/Green Knight ll. 651-655 The pentacle represents all knightly virtues and “[suits Gawain] exceptionally well.” (SGGK, l.622). Gawain’s peers consider him the ideal knight. He must keep his polite actions throughout the poem. Gawain, who is Arthur’s court member, owes Arthur some loyalty. Gawain is a knight who accepts the challenge of the Green Knight. Gawain also protects the king and maintains Arthur’s honour by verifying Arthur’s bravery. Gawain keeps the benefits of Arthur’s court so the principle is that Gawain must defend it. Gawain’s and Bercilak’s courtesy is very similar to Arthur’s. It is a matter of loyalty and respect. Gawain shows mutual respect when, upon arriving at Bercilaks castle, he is dressed in elegant, warm clothes, and served a lavish meal. Then, he is questioned about who he is. “Then he had to be politely acknowledged that he belonged in the court’s custody. 901-904 Bercilak does not request Gawain’s identity until he has displayed hospitality and courtesy. Gawain rejects Lady Bercilak’s advances because he is loyal to Bercilak. Gawain is spared from death by Bercilak because he does the same as Bercilak. Gawain, just like Arthur and Bercilak treats Gawain with kindness, even though Gawain is a horrible character. Gawain and Gawain have agreed to be friendly one year following their first encounter. This makes it mutual. Gawain was able to keep his promise of the Green Knight because of his sense and honor. It is evident that Sir Gawain’s male-male relationships with the Green Knight include respect, loyalty, and mutuality. This helps to equalize all parties. Contrary to this, the male-female relationship is more one-sided than that of courteous men. Gawain, such an excellent knight, is rightly praised. Whom courtesy is so fully embodied, couldn’t have spent so many hours with a Lady Without asking for a kiss. (Sir Gawain’s Green Knight ll. 1297-1301) These lines were spoken in part by Bercilak’s wives to highlight the uneven courtesy between men, women, and the poem. Lady Bercilak here demands that Gawain kiss her. Lady Bercilak dictates to Gawain what courtesy looks like, rather than having to work together to define it. Larry D. Benson claims that “In Sir Gawain” [courtesy] is what the temptation is all about. Lady Bercilak demands that Gawain exchange courtesy. “The knight reacted cautiously and in the most courteous manner” (SGGK1282). Lady Bercilak makes Gawain follow her notion of courtesy. Lady Bercilak’s dominance is recapped by the author, who has her enter Gawain’s bedroom and not vice versa. Also, she uses her playful lines about imprisoning Gawain as he surrenders. (SGGK ll. 1211-1216. Lady Bercilak’s attack upon Gawain’s courtesy underscores the tension between male and female courtesy. Gawain refuses to follow Lady Bercilak in his model of courtesy, accepting the green gown and complying with her example. Gawain cannot be reintegrated into the Arthurian courts due to the conflicting nature of their courtesies. Gawain doesn’t escape with his head against the Green Knight. The green girdle that he received from the Green Knight is his reminder of his past sins. Arthur is told by Arthur that the green cloth represents the dishonesty which he was caught in, and that he must wear it until his death. 2509-2511: The girdle is symbolic of Gawain’s breach of courtesy. It has forever changed Gawain. Gawain’s new marred personality is difficult to get along with Arthur’s subjects. They “laugh loudly over [the reason he wore the belt]”(SGGK. l. 2514). And they adopt the custom. Gawain, however, is not pleased with the green belt. Gawain feels ripped off by this tension between his two models. Sir Gawain’s Green Knight represents two medieval ideals courtesy. Gawain can’t be courteous because of their differences. Arthur’s court is cut off by this. Sir Gawain, Green Knight, and their courtesy are insufficient to preserve social order. Works Cited Benson. Larry D. Art, Tradition and Sir Gawain in Sir Gawain’s Green Knight. Rutgers University Press is based in New Brunswick, New Jersey. 1965 Knox. E. L. Skip. “Courtesy” 12 October 1995

Whinny. James, ed. Sir Gawain, ed. In 1996, Broadview Press published a book in Orchard Park, New York.

A Tragic Hero In The Crucible

The play’s title, “The Crucible,” refers to a place where substances are melted at high temperatures. This symbolises the play because Salem was tense due to hysteria. Everyone was brought before a judge for witchcraft. Tragic heroes are noble, virtuous characters in dramatic tragedies who are destined for misery, defeat, or downfall. Each character has strengths and flaws. John Proctor is the main protagonist. Arthur Miller portrays Proctor to be a man who is proud of his name and reputation in society. Proctor is well-known for his integrity, honesty, and upright conduct. “Proctor was respected in Salem and even feared by the people.” (Act 1). Proctor still had two fatal flaws. He was involved with Abigail Williams, his 16-year-old maid. These illegal acts would lead to many unforeseen consequences that changed the lives and fortunes of Salem residents.

John Proctor, the main character of this play, was an inactive, non-status-holding member in his society. However, he was respected by Salem. He was a middle-aged farmer with a wicked and bitter approach to hypocrites. Proctor was strong and able to handle pressure. He was, in fact, the kind of man who couldn’t refuse to support partisans without causing their deepest resentment Act 1. He was often criticized for his calumny. Proctor, despite his positive qualities and calm demeanour, was troubled by his thoughts. Act 1: Proctor was a sinner. He committed sin against not only the moral trends of his time but also against his own view of good conduct. Proctor continues making irreversible and serious mistakes that have damaged his reputation. The Puritan religion was strict and had strict laws. They also had no ritual for purifying sins. If someone committed a crime, they were punished severely. Proctor initially tried to cover up his crime because he was afraid of being exiled and hung in a society that values reputation. Proctor’s affair to Abigail Williams causes a series of events that lead to more serious allegations. Proctor initially tried to hide his crime because he was afraid of being exiled or hung in a society where a person’s reputation plays a major role in their daily lives. Proctor didn’t confess initially because he was afraid that he would ruin his family’s reputation. Act two is when Elizabeth encourages Proctor, despite his fear of ruining his family’s reputation, to confess the lies to Abigail. Proctor says that the girl is a saint and refuses to tell Elizabeth what he knows. Proctor was continually irritated by guilt throughout the play. He finally spoke up when Elizabeth, his spouse, was arrested for witchcraft. His past actions were too late. Proctor was charged with witchcraft and sentenced. Proctor was also accused of witchcraft and sentenced to death. Injustice and a corrupted Salem court played a significant role in the rise of hysteria in the area. Salem has a witchcraft law that if a person is convicted, they must confess to it to the court. Otherwise, they will be hanged. Many innocent persons falsely accused for witchcraft did not admit to having participated in the sin. They were therefore hanged. The court could have stopped the spread in hysteria by recognizing that the girls were playing on the law. Proctor would have not been sentenced to death and accused of being a noble man. John Proctor still had the opportunity to save his family’s life and was spared death. Proctor was asked to confess to seeing Satan and sign a piece on paper. Proctor refused, however, and was sentenced to death. Proctor also felt he wouldn’t do justice to his friends who had lost their lives trying to save their reputation. Proctor’s character attempts to convey larger messages from Arthur Miller through Proctor. They include the importance of each individual in society, the value and judgment of truth and injustice. Miller was inspired by Marion Starkey’s book “The Devil in Massachusetts” to create ‘The Crucible. Miller noticed similarities between the problems facing people accused of witchcraft at Salem and those charged with communism in connection to Russia during McCarthyism. American authorities had names and addresses of people who were accused of being present at communist meetings. These people were then brought up for trial in order to uncover the truth. The Salem court had a similar list of people who were accused in witchcraft. Both situations saw corrupted authorities and innocent persons were executed. Miller also highlighted through Proctor that every person plays an essential role in society and that their names have significance. Proctor was very worried about his reputation, particularly when it was at risk. Proctor refrains from lying, but rather takes the risk to do the right thing, knowing that his name is in danger. Proctor answered the question, “because it is my name!” Because I can have no other person in my existence! Because I lie. Act 4. Reverend Hale asked Elizabeth to tell her husband that she was sorry and she replied, “He has his goodness now, God forbid he take it from me.” Proctor was the leader of a new generation righteous officials. The idea of justice and reputation was the central theme of “The Crucible”. John Proctor was the best example of these ideas. Proctor, as with all characters, has strengths and also weaknesses. Proctor was well-known for his integrity, honesty, and good standing in Salem. His fatal flaws were what ultimately brought him down. Proctor lost his life to Abigail Williams’ lust and pride for himself and his reputation. Despite all this, Proctor managed to retain his dignity as well as respect for society. This shows that honesty is the key to being a great person and achieving inner peace.

Money Boy By Paul Yee: The Issue Of Sexuality And Sexual Preference

The past and present have been difficult to discuss sexuality. Acceptance of individual views and choices in society is not always easy, even in America. To ensure equality in the L. B. G. T. communities, laws are being made. Despite all the advancements made individuals still face rejection from their families, colleagues, and society.

Paul Yee writes Money Boy about Ray Liu. He is a young Chinese immigrant attempting to fit in, as well as his internal struggle with homosexuality. Ray Liu must make difficult decisions to please his father and find his place within society. Ray Liu is an immigrant who finds his way through the internet to find his way back home. Liu’s father, a military man, doesn’t think video games are worth his time and considers them a waste. Ray Liu discovers gay websites on his computer and he decides to throw his son out onto the street. Ray Liu is left to fend for himself and discover his true identity without any time to talk about the content. Money Boy addresses a topic children are asking questions about at an early age. Parents feel confused and helpless. The book featured many difficult situations such as being robbed, hungry or sexually content. This made the book feel real. The novel is a good choice for 12th-graders to read, as it provides a deeper understanding of homosexual struggles and desires. As a parent, your vision is what you want for your child. As a parent, you want your child to be happy and free from sadness and pain. Parents are often overwhelmed when they discover something different from their vision. Our children can learn a lot from how we manage ourselves. Ba is shocked to discover the sites his son has been visiting. What should you think? Your grandfather was correct. I’m a failure. To raise you, I could have done more displacing. It’s too late. “

The text describes a situation that discourages teens from discussing their sexuality or coming out. Readers unfamiliar with the inner struggles of teens and their fear can read Reading Money Boy to gain an understanding. Readers will discover about the difficulties faced by Ray Liu, Money Boy’s character. Individuals are forced to think critically when they have to go against the grain of society norms. Ray, robbed, befriended and forced to make tough decisions to be a “money boy” to survive, is an example of this. Yee does an excellent job in showing the reader the consequences of following one’s dreams. Ray struggles to find acceptance from culture and his family in a world that doesn’t understand or share his desires. Yee can demonstrate Ray’s questioning of queer theory about binaries being gay/straight.

Because we see individuals as different, we tend not to recognize their identities or knowledge. Ray’s story is a reminder for those who may have difficulty coming out to parents and peers. Ray is home when his grandfather becomes ill and he decides he must go. He is trembling with his lips. I pause. Ba whispers, “Say yes,” I pause. (Yee 182) The book’s readers will be able to read this section and see that even though it is against their family’s wishes, they are still loved by them and taken care of. Ray’s grandfather is unable to understand Ray’s decision. Instead, he suggests that Ray adopt a child and/or make him a test-tube. Because it shows the reader how important family is, even when it’s against societal norms. Money Boy is an excellent, short book that will be of great value to anyone who has experienced the same struggles Ray Liu had.

Although the novel may be short, Yee shows us a glimpse through the eyes of a father and his teenage son. Yee doesn’t go beyond Ray and his grandfather, but there are many valuable lessons for the reader. Ray’s experiences have two main takeaways. The other is the importance of family and how you can work with difficult situations. Ba is worried about how his dad will react, but I believe he is able to see the positive side of it all.

On The Different Translations Of “Oedipus Rex”

Sophocles’ “Oedipus Rex” (lit. “Oedipus Rex” by Sophocles (lit. This Ancient Athenian story is not only a collection of plays, but a variety of translations that each have added their own twist to the timeless tale. Thomas Gould and J.E. are just a few of the translations. Thomas, Francis Storr and J.E. Thomas: These accounts are almost identical but reveal intriguing nuances of theme and character when you read them line-by–line. These nuances are what reveal the individual interpretations of each translator’s original Greek text.

The play “Oedipus Redux” is known for its lengthy dialogue between Oedipus with Tiresias. Tiresias must reveal the murderer of Laius or the source of the plague. Oedipus is the prophet. Oedipus is initially gracious and reluctant to criticize the prophet. But he soon gives up on his arrogance and divulges the truth. Oedipus makes a claim at this point. This is a translation from Gould. Gould’s Oedipus is sarcastic in this instance, repeating “I” as a personal pronoun followed by an uncharacteristic self-deprecating epithet. He passively criticizes what he perceives as the falsity of the seer, and possibly also prophecy’s false nature. This is a particularly base criticism, given the high reverence Sophocles gave prophets and gods among his Ancient Athenian audience. The king continues his insult to the prophet by referring to his own success in solving the Sphinx’s riddle with “thought” rather than augury. If you are familiar enough with Ancient Greek customs to recognize augury’s importance in Ancient Greek culture, your arrogance is evident. The dialogue continues with a false accusation against Creon, his uncle/brother in law. Gould’s choice of words (“plot’s conspirator”) portrays Oedipus as almost paranoid. He conveys the king’s view of the prophecy and establishes a very ironic victim complex. Gould adds to the victim complex and a negative vindictiveness by making Oedipus declare that Tiresias would be his “victim” if he wasn’t so old. The monologue ends with a jab at the seer’s aging. This reinforces the protagonist’s disrespect and also reminds him of his own youth in comparison to Tiresias’. Gould has portrayed him as arrogant and full of hubris. Thomas’ translation gives us a different Oedipus. Thomas’ Oedipus says, “I, Oedipus the idiot, stopped her, working with intellect, not learning form birds./ I think you both will regret/ your urges to cleanse the land. But if you/ weren’t so old, you would learn now what such terms earn.” (418-423). This Oedipus looks softer than Gould and is likely to be more popular with readers. The opening epithet is self-deprecating. However, he does not repeat the pronoun. This slightly reduces the sardonic tone. His story of the Sphinx reveals a familiar arrogance toward prophecy. However, he uses the pronouns in a more subtle manner. The words that follow (“I think”) continue to soften Thomas’ tragic heroine. Although they may appear insignificant, the verbs “think” and “think” give Thomas an important touch of humility. It suggests a degree in which there is uncertainty. This in turn subconsciously prompts readers and critics to praise Thomas for his unpredictability. His monologue rests mostly in a straightforward fashion and lacks much of Gould’s Oedipus’ negative emotion and passion. Thomas’ Oedipus’ speech has a calm pace, and he uses no interjections or exclamation. His descriptions are more direct and incisive. Creon becomes, for example, an implicit “concocter” and a more ambiguous” “one who framed those things”. The threat to Tiresias is present in this translation as well, but this idea “earn[ing]” helps to alleviate its harshness. The story is so familiar that the reader won’t be able to identify with any Oedipus. But, they will feel more compassion for Thomas, his tragic hero, than for his translational counterparts.

Storr’s Oedipus is a middle ground. He takes on his own life. The equivalent excerpt from this last translation is: “I, Oedipus the simple, stopped her mouth with mother wit, untaught off auguries/ My plot to drive you out./ I thank thy gray hairs that thou hast not yet to learn the chastisement that such arrogance merits.” (399-404). This Oedipus opens in a subtler way, using a less jarring descriptor (“simple”) that still conveys a bit of humor. While disrespect and arrogance continue as expected in relation to the Sphinx’s fate, Storr’s now uses a more subtle descriptor (“simple”) to describe his success. Since Oedipus’ real mother is not the same as success, his irony may be able to elicit sympathy, or at most a laugh from his readers. Storr’s Oedipus is a good example of this. He uses the verb “methinks”, which is archaic for “I think”, to express an admirable amount of uncertainty. You can also see a hint of the anger and emotion that Gould used to translate him. He said Creon’s “plot” was wrong and Tiresias must regret it. He then described his disputants as “arrogant” and concluded the monologue brilliantly. This captures the almost absurdity of what the tragic hero appears and does. He is, in fact, the one who is hindered and will be punished for his arrogance.

The three differently-translated excerpts above-in addition to the countless other translations of “Oedipus Rex” yet to be analyzed and compared-each contain a world of new emotion, insight, and humor buried within a paradoxically constant narrative. These worlds not only reveal the incredible flexibility of language, perception, and the extraordinary prerogative of a translator to bring his own perspective to the translation.

The Contrast Of Two Cities In The Merchant Of Venice

William Shakespeare explores Belmont and Venice in his play “The Merchant of Venice”. Because these two Italian cities are so opposite, characters’ behavior can vary from one city to the other. Venice is where the Shakespeare play begins. Scenes in the real world center on wealth, trade and history as well as urban life. The language used in the real world is formal and uses many conceits. Venice is also dominated by men, while Belmont is dominated mostly by women. Belmont is also a place of fantasy and ideality. Love is more important than money and other rational things. People use a simpler, more humorous language to describe the place than Venice, a trading town. Shakespeare, however, introduces two locations that are in sharp contrast to each other.

The playwright “The Merchant of Venice” has parallel scenes that show Venice and Belmont. The most striking difference between the two places is the crash of love and money. Venice is Italy’s centre for trade. There is no shortage of financial transactions, and it even mirrors people’s speeches. Act I Scene 1 begins on the street with the dialogue among Antonio, Salerio, and Solanio. Antonio opens the first line by saying “I feel so sad”[1] although he suspects that he doesn’t understand why he feels sorrowful. Act I Scene III is also where Bassanio requests a loan from Shylock. Bassanio tells Antonio that if he does not pay, Antonio will. Bassanio gives Antonio a guarantee so that the money cannot be returned. Shylock said, “He is good to have your understanding that he suffices.”[2]. It means that if a person has wealth, they are reliable in this center. Belmont where Portia resides is, however, a fantasy world that Shakespeare made. It is home to poetry, sweet songs, spheres, and classic literature. This city is rich, too, but it is not inherited like Portia’s wealth from her father. This city was built on love. Portia tells Prince, of Morocco, Act II, Scene I that she is not limited in her choices. / I can be guided by the eyes of a maiden. She implies that it is not enough to be attractive to men. She needs other conditions to get married. While she desires to love and find the right man, her father doesn’t allow it. Her father still controls her life and she has all but love. Portia travels to Venice for her problems with love, while Bassanio goes in Belmont to get his finances under control. Portia enjoys Bassanio. He does make use of her feelings for money. Act I Scene I sees him finally speaking about Portia. He refers to a girl who loves him very much and is wealthy. Bassanio said: “In Belmont is an elderly lady, Fair and fairer than the Word, Of wondrous virtues. Sometimes, I received fair speechless messages from her eyes.”[5] Also, beautiful language symbolizes decorum. Venice is a trading centre, and people use it to make a living. Therefore, it is important that they use the appropriate language in order to be understood by others. They also use this language to communicate their intelligence to each other. Salerio even portrays shipwreck in the second scene. Belmont does not require ladies to use elaborate language. Instead, they choose a more simple and humorous approach. They can speak however they wish without worrying about being sophisticated. This may also be due to the ideal city. Portia responds to Nerissa in Act III Scene IV by saying, “Fie! What a question! / If thou were near a lewd interlocutor!”[7]. The question isn’t something she likes and she also says that she doesn’t think she can understand it. She is not shy about it and says this directly.Additionally, these two worlds differ from each other in terms of predominant gender roles in them. It can easily be said that Venice is patriarchal while Belmont, on the other hand, is feminine. The play also shows the discrimination that was prevalent in those days. After the exchange of rings in Act IV’s court of justice, Act V Scene I sees Bassanio and Grationo go to Portia in Belmont. Portia & Nerissa are right to blame them. This is because gentlemen don’t care about their relationships and either lose or give their rings to other women. These issues are not important in patriarchal societies. However, men begin to talk about their opinions and claim that women cannot communicate with them. Shakespeare subverts gender norms and the men are able to defend their own position. Gratiano says that he gave his ring to the judge’s assistant, but then he refers to his physical appearance saying that he was “a young, a kind boy, a little clean boy”[8] in order for women to believe him. Bassanio, too, claims that he lost his ring while defending it. He then continues: “… What do I have to say, sweetie? / I was forced to send it after he, / I felt ashamed and insincere. Portia acts like a male while challenging gender norms. The court will not recognize their first goal, but they are there to help them. They could have done it without becoming men. Probably, the ladies are aware that no one listens to them. They cannot defend Bassanio/Gratiano in court if they are women.

Belmont and Venice can also be linked to the Old Testament as well as the New Testament. Venice is a city that is known for its trade centers. There are many foreigners living here, including Shylock, who is a Jew. To show Antonio a lesson, he should show mercy and not insist on a pound of flesh. This strict focus on the agreement means that Judaism has been associated with the Old Testament. Belmont women, on the contrary, are more merciful than God’s. This is evident in the final act, which concerns the rings of Bassanio Gratiano. The play is closely linked to Christianity as well as the New Testament.

Venice is also a historical city, contrary to Belmont. The historical sings that Shylock desires for Antonio’s flesh are obvious to the reader. Shylock is a Jewishman. Antonio humiliated Shylock before, and now he seeks revenge. Act I Scene 3: Shylock first sees Antonio as the guarantor to Bassanio. Shakespeare refers to Shylock, Antonio and both as Jewish people. The Christian belief holds that all Jews will convert to Christianity in the near future. Shylock was converted by the playwright. However, Belmont’s historical events are not known to the audience. In the ideal world, people can freely express and think their thoughts. Portia isn’t completely free in fairy land, even though she enjoys these freedoms. He will have her marry a man. Susan Oldrive said this in her article. She stated that Portia cannot veto her dad’s decision to marry a man, a right which became more common in Elizabethan times.[11] In other words, every city has its problems.

There is also a distinction between pastoral and urban life. Trade is a major factor in Venice’s urban life. Urban areas are home to many people from diverse cultures. It is okay to not get along with someone if it isn’t necessary. This can be seen in the relationship between Shylock’s Bassanio and Antonio. Bassanio went to Shylock for money. His only goal was to get money to Portia, and not to become a friend. Shylock is aware of Antonio’s tendency to lend money without thinking and to hate Jews. They also have a suitable language for urban living. Belmont, however, is a rural community. People generally inherit their wealth in rural areas. This is similar to Portia’s father’s legacy. It is important to note that Venice does not have a lot of cultural diversity. The Belmont scenes do not reflect this. These scenes are not the only examples of rural life. Belmont’s peaceful environment and Shepherds could also be good examples. Religion is also a concern for shepherds who represent Jesus Christ. Portia, who is a saint, can also be associated with the shepherd. This peaceful area is known for its peace and tranquility. All arguments usually take place in Venice and not Belmont.

Belmont and Venice are two places in Italy William Shakespeare used to set the scenes for “The Merchant of Venice”. They are opposites. Venice is the city of reality. They are focused on Venice because it embodies everything they want. Belmont, on the other hand, is a symbol of ideality. They are also given the New Testament and love, which is their most important matter. Belmontans are easier-going than Venice’s. These attributes are reflected in the language spoken. People use more sophisticated language in Venice to communicate their financial interests. In Belmont, however, they prefer more simple and natural language. These are characteristics of cities, but they also reflect culture. William Shakespeare compares the two worlds with success in “The Merchant of Venice”.

Works cited

D. J. Snider. “The Merchant of Venice: Conclusion”.” The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. Vol. 6, No. 4, pg. 361-375. Lehnhof, Kent. “The Merchant of Venice: Venice, Belmont,” Chapman University Symposium. Nineteenth of April, 2016. Magri, Neomi. “Places In Shakespeare: Belmont And Thereabouts.” De Vere Society Newsletter. June 2003. Oldrieve, Susan. “Marginalized voices in ‘The Merchant of Venice” Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature Vol. 5, No. In Spring of 1993, a symposium was published which focused on “The Merchant of Venice.” 87-105. Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a play written by William Shakespeare about a merchant in Venice, Italy. The story focuses on the merchant’s struggle for justice and his relationship with a wealthy heiress. The play has been adapted for the stage, film, and television over the years. The Collins Classics collection of 2011 presents a snapshot of Great Britain. [1] Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare about a Jewish moneylender who demands a pound of flesh as collateral from a Christian merchant in Venice. Great Britain: Classics by Collins, 2011. Pg. Seven, first line. [2] Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a famous play by William Shakespeare. It tells the story of a young merchant, Antonio, who borrows money from a wealthy Jewish moneylender, Shylock, in order to help his friend, Bassanio, win the hand of a wealthy heiress. However, when Antonio is unable to repay the loan, a bitter conflict erupts between the two. The Collins Classics edition of Great Britain was released in 2011. Pg. 19, Lines 13-14. [3] Magri, Neomi. “Places Shakespeare: Belmont & Thereabouts.” De Vere Society Newsletter. June 2003. [4] Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare about a Jewish moneylender, Antonio, who agrees to loan money to a Venetian merchant, Bassanio, in exchange for a pound of Antonio’s flesh if he can’t repay the loan. Great Britain’s Collins Classics series was published in 2011. Pg. 26, Lines 13-14. [5] Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare about a wealthy merchant who is willing to take a loan from a Jewish moneylender, but must agree to certain conditions in order to do so. Great Britain has been published in the Collins Classics collection in 2011. Pg. 12, Lines 161-164. [6] Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare about a merchant, Antonio, who has to borrow money from a Jewish money lender, Shylock. Antonio agrees to pay Shylock back with a pound of his own flesh if he fails to repay the loan. Antonio is eventually able to repay the loan, but not before going through a series of trials and tribulations. Great Britain is featured in Collins Classics’ 2011 edition. Pg. 8, Lines 27-28. [7] Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a well-known play written by William Shakespeare. It tells the story of a merchant in Venice, Italy and his dealings with a Jewish moneylender. The play is filled with themes of justice, mercy, and revenge, and ultimately examines the relationships between different religions and cultures. The classic work about Great Britain was recently republished by Collins Classics in 2011. Pg. 74, Lines 79-80. [8]Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare which tells the story of a conflict between a Jewish moneylender and a Christian merchant in 16th century Venice. The Collins Classics edition of Great Britain was published in 2011. Pg. 104 Lines 161-162. [9] Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare about a Jewish moneylender and the lengths he goes to for the sake of love and justice. The Collins Classics edition of Great Britain was published in 2011. Pg. 106, Lines 215-217. [10] Shakespeare, William. A businessperson from Venice. The Collins Classics series from Great Britain was released in 2011. Pg. 20, Lines 37-43. [11] Oldrieve, Susan. “Marginalized voices in ‘The Merchant of Venice” Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature Vol. 5, No. 1, A Symposium issue on “The Merchant of Venice” (Spring 1993). Pg. 90.

Drawing Important Conclusions By Comparing Reading A Novel To The Pursuit Of A Woman

Italo Calvino’s Italo Calvino’s Italo Night a Traveller demonstrates how Calvino attempts a comparison between reading a novel and a man pursuing a female. This text has the reader playing the role a male protagonist trying to read a novel. The protagonist encounters a female reader along the way and they become friends. This pursuit mirrors our interactions as readers and text. The narrative begins draw us in to reading. This interpretation might seem to be sexist or inaccurate for female readers at first, but further analysis will confirm its validity. Calvino’s goal in this novel is to analyze the experience of the reader. The romantic encounter allows us to draw important insights about the experience of the reader. Although Calvino may only value the masculine experience of the readers, this comparison will enhance our understanding of the relationship between text-reader. It will also reveal how Calvino’s novel values female pleasure.

In Earl G. Ingersoll’s Waiting for the End. Gender and Ending. Contemporary Novels, Ingersoll examines the inconsistency of Calvino’s endings and the effects this has on the reader. Readers have been taught to read traditional narrative to enjoy the plot. Calvino challenged this notion with If on a Winter’s Night, a Traveller. This book eliminates endings. Calvino draws the attention of readers repeatedly with compelling beginnings of stories. Then, he abruptly ends them at their most engaging part of each story. Calvino wants to make the reader question their relationship with the text. Calvino wants readers to appreciate the text as a reading experience, not for a particular ending. The plot is what has always been the most important part of narrative. A good ending is the key. It isn’t worth telling a story if there’s no good ending, climax, rising action or climax. This thought was supported by Sigmund Fréud. Freud believed that all human beings have a pleasure or death drive. These drives drive people to seek pleasure and their own ends. Peter Brooks wrote “Freud’s Masterplot” in his essay. Even in narrative, the characters seek a satisfying ending–an honourable death. This notion has been challenged by Calvino and other postmodern writers. These postmodern thinkers say they don’t pursue the end but rather find joy in the process. Ingersoll claims that Calvino is seeking a “pleasure of text”, which transcends the traditional notion that a plot’s ending can be transformed into meaning. We will expand on this idea as we examine If on the winter’s nights a traveling companion. Calvino examines the different ways readers interact with the text during reading. Calvino wants readers to be more aware of their reading experience. Calvino knows that an author can manipulate the reader through the words he or she chooses, and he writes to make this clear. Calvino challenges the conventions of narrative by doing this. Traveller is an example of a story that has no endings. The storyline can be interrupted at times, but it doesn’t end. Reader and other Reader never read all ten of the books. Even the end of the novel is omitted. The book’s final line tells us that the reader/reader is “almost finished [reading]” (Calvino 266) The last line of the book tells us that we’re “almost” done. This means we won’t be able to reach the ending. Calvino’s postmodern philosophy, which challenges the notion of endings in narratives, is based on Calvino’s questioning of the narrative itself. This is Calvino’s argument. We can better understand it by comparing the experience to a romantic relationship. There are two types in romantic pursuits. One is those that are interested only in one thing; the other is those who seek a genuine relationship.

Literature can be said to be read for plot. If the ending is good, then they move on to another book. However, those who read to enjoy the text’s narrative value it as it is. Susan Winnett further explores this theme in her essay, “Coming unstrung. Women and Men, Narratives, and Principles of Pleasure.” Winnett asserts that since ancient times, narratives have been written with male pleasure as their goal. This is the reason why narratives of increasing conflict, resolution or ending have been so strong emphasized. She proposes the idea of writing with female pleasure at heart, creating a totally new style. While she doesn’t intend to change the style of literature as such, she makes compelling arguments for a new style. She direct compares reading pleasure to romantic pleasure between a man or woman. This is a striking comparison when we look at Calvino’s narrative. Winnett opens her essay saying: “Considering decade-long preoccupations over sexuality and the pleasures that come with reading, it is astonishing that theories about narrative and pleasure seem to have neglected to mention the differences between men and women’s reading pleasures” (505). This is something most people, including women, have probably never considered in relation to reading. Winnett continues explaining that male pleasures tend to be more closely associated with the plot narrative. Female pleasures, however, are not. Male pleasure is more about conquering or ending. While female pleasure can continue into forward motion, new lives, or sharing the pleasure of the other.

Winnett compares male and female orgasm to the enjoyment of reading good stories. Winnett uses Peter Brooks’ essay on “Freud’s Masterplot” to describe the experience. This narrative plot structure mimics the pattern of arousal. It has a beginning, middle and climax. Then comes resolution. Here, the pleasure drive is matched by the desire for the ending. Winnett argues that this idea is inherently masculine, and misrepresents a large number of readers. She says that Brook’s description of the oedipal dynamics which structure and determine traditional fiction narratives and psychoanalytic paradigms are brilliant. It reminds us, in the case we have forgotten, exactly what men want and how they go about achieving it. These ideas are explored by Calvino in Traveller as Reader/We reread the ten novels. Each story involves the main character trying to pursue a female protagonist in some way. These stories are all graphic and show the male protagonist trying to romance the woman. Some stories are about actual physical intimacy. Other stories have the male protagonist pursue the woman until it shifts to the most exciting part. These stories could be seen as proof of Calvino’s sexist novel. However, this perspective can offer a totally different view.

Calvino might be contrasting his narrative with the inner stories. Each inner story is structured in a way that resembles a traditional plot. The satisfying ending is left at the end. Reader’s pursuit to Ludmilla (or Reader) is, however, not at all objectifying. Reader pursues Ludmilla’s company because she is curious and respectable. Their story is not over with the male conquering and arousing female. Their story does not end with the male conquering the female by the female, as the seventh reader at the library said. The seventh reader stated that “the ultimate meaning to all stories has two faces” (259). Calvino’s story continues as Reader and Reader wed and continue their daily reading habits in bed. Calvino’s tale, unlike traditional novels, does not want to end. Given the gender versus male dichotomy, Calvino’s narrative desires to continue. The female is the one who sustains human life by giving birth to new lives. Winnett expands her analysis by looking at breast feeding and birth for women. While the experience of a woman giving birth to a baby or breastfeeding may look similar to that of a man, it is fundamentally different. While the male experience ends with death, release or rebirth, the female experience is one of continued life.

A female experience is dependent on another. A woman’s conception is dependent upon another. The birthing experience is dependent on another. Breastfeeding pleasures are dependent on one another. Winnett’s argument is that childbirth and breastfeeding force us to think forward, not backward. The finality of birth as a physical experience pales when compared with the thrilling, terrifying feeling of the start of a new chapter in our lives (509). It is not easy, but it is worth it. The experience of sharing it with another person seems to be a joy. Traveller as Reader is an example of this. Instead of focusing on the book, you try to shift your focus to Ludmilla’s presence to the book. However, you are unable to read. The novel is now stalled before your eyes. The presence of other readers has multiplied reader’s world. The presence of another reader has made life easier.

Winnett concludes that it is time for a reexamination of the traditional narrative structure that has “told” us in advance where we should go and what will happen. (516). Calvino’s Traveller takes us one step closer to this goal. Calvino’s novel creates new beginnings and ends, so his novel is more than just a conclusion. Calvino lets the reader (us), decide how we read the text. He provides beginnings and endings for stories between Reader and Reader but does not address the final question. The possibilities of interpretation are endless, just as the story with mirrors suggests. Calvino does not want us to be lost, but he wants us all to continue to live in the constant realm of existence. Winnett proposed that Calvino’s novel is representative for “the continuity and life”, as it aligns more with the pleasure of females and not the certain, conquering nature or inevitable ending of male pleasure (Calvino 259). Calvino’s novel, If on a Night a Traveller (Calvino 259) isn’t sexist for its male protagonists or objectification of women. Instead, it’s more feminine-oriented than masculine pleasure. Calvino created a novel that challenges the traditional narrative structure without knowing if he intended to do this.

Calvino is not content to offer his readers closure. He creates a complex narrative that explores the reader’s relationship to the text, author and author. He creates an endless stream of beginnings that never ends. Calvino’s new approach to literature has been created by this. Reading If on a Winter’s Night a Traveller can change the way you view literature forever. It will open up new perspectives and give rise to a new kind of literary life. Italo Calvino’s ability to compare the reading experience with a romantic relationship has helped readers see narrative in a new way.

Works citées

Calvino, Italo. A traveller is someone who goes out on winter nights. Orlando was published by Harcourt Books in 1979. Print.Ingersoll Earl G. Waiting For the End: Gender & Ending in Contemporary Fiction. Madison (2007) published a work by Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. The Shmoop Editorial Team published a print version. The theme of gender is explored in Italo Calvino’s novel “If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler”. Shmoop University, Inc., 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 11 March 2015.Witten, Susan. “Coming unstrung: Women and Men, Narratives, and Principles for Pleasure.” PMLA103.5 (1990): 505-518. Web. March 13th, 2015.

A Kingdom’s Beast: The Adah Price’s Story

Adah price has lived a life of survival since the day she was conceived. Surviving is more important than living. Kingsolver portrays Adah’s cynical lifestyle in The Poisonwood Bible. She is isolated from almost everyone she knows and has to work hard to maintain her head above water. Her outlook is pessimistic as a result. However, she gains a mature perspective on the world and herself through her experiences in Congo. She sees the Congo through a different lens and begins to accept her life. Adah price grows out of her old self and becomes something new. “That’s what it is to be a Beast in the Kingdom.” (306)

Adah was always half-full. Although her mental illness and outsider status are the main reasons for her negative outlook, it all changes when she is in Congo. Adah’s low self-esteem is reflected in her comparison to her twin sister Leah. (34). Adah also feels hopeless and has low self-esteem. As Adah calls herself, “lost within the shuffle,” (34) She prefers looking backwards over forward. Adah discovers that her story in Congo progresses and she stops comparing herself or intentionally excluding others. Adah also comments that Africans stare at her because of her whiteness, not her limp. This is her first experience not being discriminated against because she has a limp. Adah, a twelve-year-old girl, develops quickly through the Congo events. Adah experiences the Congo with her mother abandoned and her feet being trampled in fire ants attacks. These are terrible things for twelve-year-olds. This is what makes her mature and able to see the value in life. Adah’s pessimism changes when she realizes the sacrifices that life requires. Adah’s near-death experience in the Revelation is when a lion almost kills him. However, a bushbuck years later is killed in her stead. Recognizing its inadvertent act of sacrifice, she says, “One God draws in the breath and rises; Another god expires.” (141). Later, she expands on this thought when congolese kill animals during times of hunger. Adah is a witness to many horrific events in Africa. This is just one example of how Adah learns a valuable lesson. She was shocked to see the cruelty of wildlife. There is no other choice. It is the single solemn guarantee that all human life is born and obligated to keep.” (347). She begins to understand the sacrifices necessary to sustain a life. Then she comes to terms about her own life. Adah comes to realize that this statement has true value. She must live a healthy life. Adah comes to appreciate the importance of living and the lessons she has learned from the Congo.

Adah is now a person who is willing and able to live. She can’t appreciate life without seeing the price of losing it. Adah has not experienced the death of animals and cannot distinguish between a loss and a real one. Adah has to have a meaningful and close-to-home funeral. An unnatural death. Her little sister Ruth May, her youngest sibling, succumbs to this death. She remarks that “because of my inability to stop for death, the kindly stopped for him-oh how dear are we to ourselves when this happens, it arrives, that long, dark shadow in the sand.” (365). This is a sign that she finally realizes the true cost of a person’s life. Adah wouldn’t feel the loss if it was her. She feels loss when someone she loved dies. She believes that she learned a lesson from her inability to stop and help him when she died. Adah remembers when Adah “reached forward and clung desperately for life with [her] best hand” (306) Adah is now aware that anyone and everything can pass away as soon as they are born. She must continue to learn if her life is to be truly meaningful. Adah takes the lessons learned from her experience and casts aside her old, narrow-minded judgmental self. This character development is evident in how she views the future.

Exodus Adah returns to Africa to relive all she has lost and gained. She can only regret the cost of becoming what she was. The Price family reunites in Congo to complete the circle. There have been two Price family members who have been in Africa for a while, and two more who are now living in America. Two of them are deceased. Adah views all of this with a sense for privation. Rachel feels that the Congo took more than she could take away. Leah does not see the Congo’s actions. Adah finally looks at Rachel. Her mother lives with the costs of living. But the cost to die is still living. Adah had the torment and pain of living in the pit she found herself in.

Adah Price was raised in harsh circumstances. She didn’t see beyond her own problems and grew up with negative influences. Adah Price isn’t a fool. Adah is adamant that her condition was not a result of predestination. She understands more than most people and would have her family believe so. Despite her intelligence, she is irritable towards life and herself. The Congo is where she will find the solution to her problems. She learns the truth about life and comes to terms with herself through the African trials. Adah is able not only to appreciate life, but also to be able hold on to her precious life with all she has. It’s the ability to resist the cruel world. Adah Prices is neither monster nor human.

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